Water Migration in One-Side Heated Concrete: 4D In-Situ CT Monitoring of the Moisture-Clog-Effect

  • Bartosz PowierzaEmail author
  • Ludwig Stelzner
  • Tyler Oesch
  • Christian Gollwitzer
  • Frank Weise
  • Giovanni Bruno


Explosive spalling due to fire exposure in concrete structures can lead severe damage and, in the worst case, to premature component failure. For this reason, an in situ investigation of water migration in concrete due to surface heating was undertaken. During these experiments, a miniaturized concrete specimen within a confining and insulating double-hull was subjected to surface heating during simultaneous X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. Through the use of subtraction-based image analysis techniques, it was possible to observe and quantify not only drying within areas of the concrete matrix close to the heated surface, but also the migration of moisture to both pore and matrix regions deeper within the specimen. It was also discovered that the correction of CT images for specimen deformation using DVC and variable detector performance using calibrated image filters significantly improved the quality of the results. This clearly demonstrates the potential of X-ray CT for evaluation of other rapid-density-change phenomena in concrete and other building materials.


In-Situ X-ray CT DVC Heated concrete Water migration Fire 



The authors would like to acknowledge their gratitude to Dr. Illerhaus, Mr. Meinel and Mr. Onel for their support and advice regarding CT scanning techniques and analysis methods. The work was internally funded by the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) through the Menschen-Ideen-Strukturen (MIS) Program.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfungBerlinGermany

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