Advertisement

Impression Formation of Male and Female Millennial Students Wearing Eye Glasses or Hearing Aids

  • Tammy Kinley
  • Jessica StrübelEmail author
  • Amyn Amlani
Original Paper
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine impressions of persons wearing hearing aids (HA) and glasses. A survey consisting of impression formation measures was administered to 569 participants. Factor analysis and a series of T-tests were used to examine the effect of wearing glasses and hearing aids on first impressions. T-tests indicated significant differences between the control and glasses style for both the male and female model. Male and female control models (without glasses) were rated more positively. Another series of t-tests between hearing aid styles and the control indicated significant differences for the heavier, more visible hearing aid with the control model being rated higher on every factor except “reliable”. There were almost no significant differences between the control and the light, less visible hearing aid for either the male or the female. Correlations among traits differ as a function of both stimulus person and relevance of trait. Data indicates that different types of hearing aids stimulate varying impressions. The findings have implications for advising potential HA users who are disinclined to wear a device for cosmetic reasons. Findings support other literature on impression formation and the hearing aid effect. However, the findings are encouraging, as hearing aid use has historically been associated with an impression of lower cognitive function, yet participants did not indicate a significant perceptual difference between the hearing aid user and the control, possibly indicating stronger social acceptance.

Keywords

Eyeglasses Hearing aids Impression formation 

Notes

References

  1. Aghaei, M., Parezzan, F., Dimiccoli, M., Radeva, P., & Cristani, M. (2017). Clothing and people—A social signal processing perspective. arXiv:1704.02231.
  2. Bar, M., Neta, M., & Linz, H. (2006). Very first impressions. Emotion, 6(2), 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bickett, L., & Milich, R. (1990). First impressions formed of boys with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(4), 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruner, J. S., & Tagiuri, R. (1954). The perception of people. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Lab of Social Relations.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christman, L. A., & Slaten, B. L. (1991). Attitudes toward people with disabilities and judgments of employment potential. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72(2), 467–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ciorba, A., Bianchini, C., Pelucchi, S., & Pastore, A. (2012). The impact of hearing loss on the quality of life of elderly adults. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7, 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Congdon, N., Wang, Y., Song, Y., Choi, K., Zhang, M., Zhou, Z., et al. (2008). Visual disability, visual function, and myopia among rural Chinese secondary school children: The Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study (X-PRES)—Report 1. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 49(7), 2888–2894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Datta, P. (2014). Self-concept and vision impairment: A review. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 32(3), 200–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dawes, P., Maslin, M., & Munro, K. J. (2014). ‘Getting used to’ hearing aids from the perspective of adult hearing-aid users. International Journal of Audiology, 53(12), 861–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekinci, Y., & Riley, M. (2003). An investigation of self-concept: Actual and ideal self-congruence compared in the context of service evaluation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 10(4), 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erler, S. F., & Garstecki, D. C. (2002). Hearing loss- and hearing aid-related stigma: Perceptions of women with age-normal hearing. American Journal of Audiology, 11(2), 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 429–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fiske, S. T. (1980). Attention and weight in person perception: The impact of negative and extreme behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(6), 889–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freitas, A., Kaiser, S., Chandler, D., Hall, D., Kim, J. W., & Hammidi, T. (1997). Appearance management as border construction: Least favorite clothing, group distancing, and identity not! Sociological Inquiry, 67(3), 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golub, J. S. (2017). Over-the-counter hearing aids are an overdue solution. The National Review, Retrieved September 1, 2018 from http://www.nationalreview.com/article/449879/otc-hearing-aids-helpful-and-necessary.
  17. Gonçalves, G., Gomes, A., Ferrão, M. C., Parreira, T., Dos Santos, J. V., Giger, J. C., et al. (2015). Once upon a face: The effect of eye size, observer and stimulus gender on impression formation. Current Psychology, 34(1), 112–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hack, T. (2014). Forming impressions: Effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes. Psychological Reports, 114(2), 557–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harris, M. B. (1991). Sex differences in stereotypes of spectacles. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(20), 1659–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hellström, Å., & Tekle, J. (1994). Person perception through facial photographs: Effects of glasses, hair, and beard on judgments of occupation and personal qualities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24(6), 693–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hindhede, A. L. (2012). Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities. Health, 16, 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Howlett, N., Pine, K., Orakçıoğlu, I., & Fletcher, B. (2013). The influence of clothing on first impressions: Rapid and positive responses to minor changes in male attire. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 17(1), 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huma, B. (2010). Gender differences in impression formation. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology, 1(1), 57–74.Google Scholar
  24. Jackson, D. N., Chan, D. W., & Stricker, L. J. (1978). Implicit personality theory: Is it illusory? ETS Research Report Series, 1978(2), 1–16.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, C. E., Danhauer, J. L., Gavin, R. B., Karns, S. R., Reith, A. C., & Lopez, I. P. (2005). The hearing aid effect 2005: A rigorous test of the visibility of new hearing aid styles. American Journal of Audiology, 14(2), 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaigler-Evans, K., & Damhorst, M. L. (1978). Impression formation: Use of descriptors of personal traits. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46, 903–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaiser, S. B. (1985). Social psychology of clothing and personal adornment. Collier Macmillan: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  28. Kunda, Z., & Thagard, P. (1996). Forming impressions from stereotypes, traits, and behaviors: A parallel-constraint-satisfaction theory. Psychological Review, 103(2), 284–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lease, S. H., Cohen, J. E., & Dahlbeck, D. T. (2007). Body and sexual esteem as mediators of the physical disability-interpersonal competencies relation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(4), 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leder, H., Forster, M., & Gerger, G. (2011). The glasses stereotype revisited. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 70(4), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin, F. R., Yaffe, K., Xia, J., Xue, Q. L., Harris, T. B., Purchase-Helzner, E., et al. (2013). Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(4), 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lundberg, J. K., & Sheehan, E. P. (1994). The effects of glasses and weight on perceptions of attractiveness and intelligence. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9(4), 753.Google Scholar
  33. Mast, M. S., Bangerter, A., Bulliard, C., & Aerni, G. (2011). How accurate are recruiters’ first impressions of applicants in employment interviews? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(2), 198–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McCracken, G. D. (1990). Culture and consumption: New approaches to the symbolic character of consumer goods and activities (Vol. 1). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  35. McDonald, K. P., & Ma, L. (2015). Dress nicer = know more? Young children’s knowledge attribution and selective learning based on how others dress. PLoS ONE, 10(12), e0144424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murphy, N. A., Hall, J. A., & Colvin, C. R. (2003). Accurate intelligence assessments in social interactions: Mediators and gender effects. Journal of Personality, 71(3), 465–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Naumann, L. P., Vazire, S., Rentfrow, P. J., & Gosling, S. D. (2009). Personality judgments based on physical appearance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(12), 1661–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oyler, A. L. (2012). Untreated hearing loss in adults—A growing national epidemic. American speech-language-hearing association. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from https://www.asha.org/Articles/Untreated-Hearing-Loss-in-Adults/.
  39. Paek, S. L. (1986). Effect of garment style on the perception of personal traits. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 5(1), 10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Palmer, C. V., & Rauterkus, E. P. (2014). Is hearing aid stigmas dead among young people? The Hearing Review. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from http://www.hearingreview.com/2014/11/hearing-aid-stigma-dead-among-younger-people/.
  41. Petrican, R., Todorov, A., & Grady, C. (2014). Personality at face value: Facial appearance predicts self and other personality judgments among strangers and spouses. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38(2), 259–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pew Research Center. (2010). Millennials: A portrait of generation next. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/10/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdf.
  43. Rauterkus, E. P., & Palmer, C. V. (2014). The hearing aid effect in 2013. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 25(9), 893–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rhodes, M. (2017). The oddly fascinating, fantastical history of eyeglasses. Wired. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from https://www.wired.com/2017/02/oddly-fascinating-fantastical-history-eyeglasses/.
  45. Riggio, R. E., & Friedman, H. S. (1986). Impression formation: The role of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(2), 421–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robillard, K., & Fichten, C. S. (1983). Attributions about sexuality and romantic involvement of physically disabled college students: An empirical study. Sexuality and Disability, 6(3), 197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rohmer, O., & Louvet, E. (2009). Describing persons with disability: Salience of disability, gender, and ethnicity. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54(1), 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rosa, J. A., Garbarino, E. C., & Malter, A. J. (2006). Keeping the body in mind: The influence of body esteem and body boundary aberration on consumer beliefs and purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16(1), 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rybarczyk, B., Nyenhuis, D. L., Nicholas, J. J., Cash, S. M., & Kaiser, J. (1995). Body image, perceived social stigma, and the prediction of psychosocial adjustment to leg amputation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 40(2), 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Santuzzi, A. M., Waltz, P. R., Finkelstein, L. M., & Rupp, D. E. (2014). Invisible disabilities: Unique challenges for employees and organizations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(2), 204–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schneider, D. J. (1973). Implicit personality theory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 79(5), 294–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sims, N. (2016). The look of changing time for spectacles. Raconteur, 6. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from https://raconteur.uberflip.com/i/572806-vision/0?m4=.
  53. Strange, A., Johnson, A., Ryan, B. J., & Yonovitz, A. (2008). The stigma of wearing hearing aids in an adolescent aboriginal population. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology, The, 30(1), 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor, P., & Keeter, S. (2010). Millennials: A portrait of generation next. Washington DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project, Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  55. Terry, R. L., & Krantz, J. H. (1993). Dimensions of trait attributions associated with eyeglasses, men’s facial hair, and women’s hair length. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(21), 1757–1769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Terry, R. L., & Kroger, D. L. (1976). Effects of eye correctives on ratings of attractiveness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vernon, R. J., Sutherland, C. A., Young, A. W., & Hartley, T. (2014). Modeling first impressions from highly variable facial images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(32), E3353–E3361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vogt, D. S., & Randall Colvin, C. (2003). Interpersonal orientation and the accuracy of personality judgments. Journal of Personality, 71(2), 267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wallhagen, M. I. (2009). The stigma of hearing loss. The Gerontologist, 50(1), 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Willis, J., & Todorov, A. (2006). First impressions: Making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17(7), 592–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. World Health Organization. (2015). The impact of myopia and high myopia. Retrieved September 1, 2018 from http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/MyopiaReportforWeb.pdf.
  62. Yawn, B. P., Kurland, M., Butterfield, L., & Johnson, B. (1998). Barriers to seeking care following school vision screening in Rochester, Minnesota. Journal of School Health, 68(8), 319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Merchandising, Hospitality and TourismUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Textiles, Fashion Merchandising and Design, College of Business AdministrationUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  3. 3.College of Health ProfessionsUniversity of ArkansasLittle RockUSA

Personalised recommendations