Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 161–194 | Cite as

Inside-Out: From Basic Emotions Theory to the Behavioral Ecology View

  • Carlos Crivelli
  • Alan J. FridlundEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Basic emotions theory (BET) is the most popular and deeply rooted psychological theory of both emotion and the facial behavior held to express it. We review its Western foundations and the key developments in its evolution, focusing on its parsing of facial expressions into two kinds: biological, categorical, iconic, universal “facial expressions of emotion,” versus modified, culturally diverse versions of those iconic expressions due to intermediation by learned “display rules.” We suggest that this dichotomy and its many corollaries are oversimplified, and that many of BET’s recent modifications are inconsistent in ways that may render it impossible to test and immune to falsification. In contrast, we suggest that the behavioral ecology view of facial displays, as an externalist and functionalist approach, resolves the quandaries and contradictions embedded in BET’s precepts and extensions.

Keywords

Facial expressions Basic emotions theory Behavioral ecology History of emotions Display rules 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by a British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grant (SRG18R1-180740) awarded to Carlos Crivelli.

References

  1. Allport, F. H. (1924). Social psychology. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Shawaf, L., Conroy-Beam, D., Asao, K., & Buss, D. M. (2016). Human emotions: An evolutionary psychological perspective. Emotion Review, 8(2), 173–186.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, L. (2014). Epigenetics. New York, NY: Garland Science, Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  4. Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science, 338(6111), 1225–1229.Google Scholar
  5. Bąk, H. K. (2016). Emotional prosody processing for non-native English speakers. Basel, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, L. F. (2017). The theory of constructed emotion: An active inference account of interoception and categorization. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 1–23.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, L. F., Mesquita, B., & Gendron, M. (2011). Context in emotion perception. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 286–290.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, J. (2015, February 24). Hard feelings: Science’s struggle to define emotions. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/02/hard-feelings-sciences-struggle-to-define-emotions/385711.
  9. Bell, C. (1806). Essays on the anatomy of expression in painting. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  10. Bender, A., Hutchins, E., & Medin, D. L. (2010). Anthropology in cognitive science. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2, 374–385.Google Scholar
  11. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Breugelmans, S. M., Chasiotis, D. L., & Sam, A. (2011). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Birdwhistell, R. L. (1970). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  13. Boag, S. (2011). Explanation in personality psychology: “Verbal magic” and the five-factor model. Philosophical Psychology, 24(2), 223–243.Google Scholar
  14. Boccagni, P., & Baldassar, L. (2015). Emotions on the move: Mapping the emergent field of emotion and migration. Emotion, Space, and Society, 16, 73–80.Google Scholar
  15. Browne, J. (1985). Darwin and the expression of the emotions. In D. Kohn (Ed.), The Darwinian heritage (pp. 307–326). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Buck, R. (1984). The communication of emotion. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Burkhardt, R. W. (1985). Darwin on animal behavior and evolution. In D. Kohn (Ed.), The Darwinian heritage (pp. 327–365). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Calder, A. J., & Young, A. W. (2005). Understanding the recognition of facial identity and facial expression. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 641–651.Google Scholar
  19. Carroll, J. M., & Russell, J. A. (1996). Do facial expressions signal specific emotions? Judging emotion from the face in context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2), 205–218.Google Scholar
  20. Chovil, N. (1989). Communicative functions of facial displays in conversation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Victoria.Google Scholar
  21. Chovil, N. (1991). Communicative functions of facial displays. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15, 141–154.Google Scholar
  22. Colombetti, G. (2014). The feeling body: Affective science meets the enactive mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cowen, A. S., & Keltner, D. (2017). Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 114, E7900–E7909.Google Scholar
  24. Crivelli, C., & Fridlund, A. J. (2018). Facial displays are tools for social influence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(5), 388–399.Google Scholar
  25. Crivelli, C., & Gendron, M. (2017). Facial expressions and emotions in indigenous societies. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 497–515). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Crivelli, C., Jarillo, S., & Fridlund, A. J. (2016a). A multidisciplinary approach to research in small-scale societies: Emotions and facial expressions in the field. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1073.Google Scholar
  27. Crivelli, C., Jarillo, S., Russell, J. A., & Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2016b). Reading emotions from faces in two indigenous societies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(7), 830–843.Google Scholar
  28. Crivelli, C., Russell, J. A., Jarillo, S., & Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2016c). The fear gasping face as a threat display in a Melanesian society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 113(44), 12403–12407.Google Scholar
  29. Crivelli, C., Russell, J. A., Jarillo, S., & Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2017). Recognizing spontaneous facial expressions of emotion in a small-scale society in Papua New Guinea. Emotion, 17(2), 337–347.Google Scholar
  30. Crivelli, C., Jarillo, S., Fernández-Dols, J. M., & Russell, J. A. (2018). Links among situations, emotions, and facial displays in a Melanesian small-scale society. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar
  31. Dalai Lama, T. G., & Ekman, P. (2008). Emotional awareness: Overcoming the obstacles to psychological balance and compassion: A conversation between the Dalai Lama and Paul Ekman. New York, NY: Times Books.Google Scholar
  32. Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London, UK: Murray.Google Scholar
  33. Darwin, C. (1965). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1872).Google Scholar
  34. Descartes, R. (2015). The passions of the soul and other late philosophical writings (M. Moriarty, Trans.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1649).Google Scholar
  35. Du, S., Tao, Y., & Martinez, A. M. (2014). Compound facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 111(15), 1554–1662.Google Scholar
  36. Durán, J. I., Reisenzein, R., & Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2017). Coherence between emotions and facial expressions. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 107–129). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Ekman, P. (1972). Universal and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. R. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1971 (Vol. 19, pp. 207–283). Lincoln, NE: Nebraska University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Ekman, P. (1973). Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ekman, P. (1980). The face of man: Expressions of universal emotions in a New Guinea village. New York, NY: Garland.Google Scholar
  40. Ekman, P. (1982). Emotion in the human face (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Ekman, P. (1984). Expression and the nature of emotion. In K. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 319–344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Ekman, P. (1985). Telling lies: Clues to deceit in the marketplace, politics, and marriage. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  43. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200.Google Scholar
  44. Ekman, P. (1993). Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist, 48, 384–392.Google Scholar
  45. Ekman, P. (1997). Expression or communication about emotion. In N. L. Segal, G. E. Weisfeld, & C. C. Weisfeld (Eds.), Uniting biology and psychology: Integrated perspectives on human development (pp. 315–338). Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
  46. Ekman, P. (2016). What scientists who study emotion agree about. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 11(1), 31–34.Google Scholar
  47. Ekman, P. (2017). Facial expressions. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 39–56). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review, 3(4), 364–370.Google Scholar
  49. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1969a). Nonverbal behavior and cues to deception. Psychiatry, 32, 88–106.Google Scholar
  50. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1969b). The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1, 49–98.Google Scholar
  51. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124–129.Google Scholar
  52. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face: A guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  53. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1982). Felt, false, and miserable smiles. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 6, 238–252.Google Scholar
  54. Ekman, P., & O’Sullivan, M. (1987). The role of context in interpreting facial expression: Comment on Russell and Fehr. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 86–88.Google Scholar
  55. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164, 86–88.Google Scholar
  56. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. (1972). What are the similarities and differences in facial behavior across cultures? In P. Ekman, W. V. Friesen, & P. Ellsworth (Eds.), Emotion in the human face (pp. 128–143). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ekman, P., Hager, J. C., & Friesen, W. V. (1981). The symmetry of emotional and deliberate facial actions. Psychophysiology, 18, 101–105.Google Scholar
  58. Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 342–353.Google Scholar
  59. Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 203–235.Google Scholar
  60. Fernández-Dols, J. M. (1999). Facial expression and emotion: A situational perspective. In P. Philippot, R. S. Feldman, & E. J. Coats (Eds.), The social context of nonverbal behavior (pp. 242–261). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2017). Natural facial behaviour: A view from psychological constructionism and pragmatics. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 77–92). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Fernández-Dols, J. M., & Carrera, C. (2011). Le bon dieu est dans le detail: Is smiling the recognition of happiness? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(6), 446–448.Google Scholar
  63. Fernández-Dols, J. M., & Carroll, J. M. (1997). Is the meaning perceived in facial expression independent of its context? In J. A. Russell & J. M. Fernández-Dols (Eds.), The psychology of facial expression (pp. 275–294). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Fernández-Dols, J. M., & Crivelli, C. (2013). Emotion and expression: Naturalistic studies. Emotion Review, 5(1), 24–29.Google Scholar
  65. Fischer, J. (2017). Monkeytalk: Inside the worlds and minds of primates. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  66. Fridlund, A. J. (1991a). Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage. Biological Psychology, 32(1), 3–100.Google Scholar
  67. Fridlund, A. J. (1991b). Sociality of solitary smiling: Potentiation by an implicit audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 229–240.Google Scholar
  68. Fridlund, A. J. (1992a). The behavioral ecology and sociality of human faces. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 90–121). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Fridlund, A. J. (1992b). Darwin’s anti-Darwinism in The Expression of the emotions in man and animals. In K. Strongman (Ed.), International review of emotion (Vol. 2, pp. 117–137). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Fridlund, A. J. (1994). Human facial expression: An evolutionary view. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Fridlund, A. J. (1997). The new ethology of human facial expressions. In J. A. Russell & J. M. Fernández-Dols (Eds.), The psychology of facial expression (pp. 103–129). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Fridlund, A. J. (2017a). The behavioral ecology view of facial displays, 25 years later. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 77–92). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Fridlund, A. J. (2017b). On scorched earths and bad births: Scarantino’s misbegotten “theory of affective pragmatics”. Psychological Inquiry, 28(2–3), 197–205.Google Scholar
  74. Fridlund, A. J. (2018, April). What can audience effects teach us about facial displays? Paper presented at the Consortium of European Research on Emotion Conference (CERE), Glasgow.Google Scholar
  75. Fridlund, A. J., Sabini, J. P., Hedlund, L. E., Schaut, J. A., Shenker, J. I., & Knauer, M. J. (1990). Social determinants of facial expressions during affective imagery: Displaying to the people in your head. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 14, 113–137.Google Scholar
  76. Fridlund, A. J., Kenworthy, K., & Jaffey, A. K. (1992). Audience effects in affective imagery: Replication and extension to dysphoric imagery. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 16, 191–212.Google Scholar
  77. Friesen, W. V. (1972). Cultural differences in facial expressions in a social situation: An experimental test of the concept of display rules. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  78. Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Perceptions of emotion from facial expressions are not culturally universal: Evidence from a remote culture. Emotion, 14(2), 251–262.Google Scholar
  79. Gendron, M., Crivelli, C., & Barrett, L. F. (2018). Universality reconsidered: Diversity in making meaning of facial expressions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(4), 211–219.Google Scholar
  80. Gilovich, T., Keltner, D., Chen, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2016). Social psychology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  81. Haidt, J., & Keltner, D. (1999). Culture and facial expression: Open-ended methods find more expressions and a gradient of recognition. Cognition and Emotion, 13(3), 225–266.Google Scholar
  82. Hassin, R. R., Aviezer, H., & Bentin, D. (2013). Inherently ambiguous: Facial expressions of emotions, in context. Emotion Review, 5(1), 60–65.Google Scholar
  83. Hess, U., Banse, R., & Kappas, A. (1995). The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 280–288.Google Scholar
  84. Hogg, C. (2014). Subject of passions: Charles Le Brun and the emotions of absolutism. Psychological Quarterly, 93, 65–94.Google Scholar
  85. Izard, C. E. (1971). The face of emotion. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  86. Izard, C. E. (2011). Forms and functions of emotions: Matters of emotion–cognition interactions. Emotion Review, 3(4), 371–378.Google Scholar
  87. Jack, R. E., & Schyns, P. G. (2017). Toward a social psychophysics of face communication. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 269–297.Google Scholar
  88. Jack, R. E., Garrod, O. G. B., Yu, H., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2012). Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 109, 7241–7244.Google Scholar
  89. Jack, R. E., Crivelli, C., & Wheatley, T. (2018). Data-driven methods to diversify knowledge of human psychology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(1), 1–5.Google Scholar
  90. James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188–205.Google Scholar
  91. Jones, S. S., Collins, K., & Hong, H. W. (1991). An audience effect on smile production in 10-months-old infants. Psychological Science, 2, 45–49.Google Scholar
  92. Kagan, J. (2007). What is emotion?. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Keltner, D. (2009). Born to be good: The science of a meaningful life. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  94. Keltner, D., & Cordaro, D. T. (2017). Understanding multimodal emotional expressions: Recent advances in Basic Emotion Theory. In J. M. Fernández-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 57–75). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Keltner, D., & Ekman, P. (2000). Facial expression of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 236–249). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  96. Keltner, D., & Shiota, M. N. (2003). New displays and new emotions: A commentary on Rozin and Cohen (2003). Emotion, 3, 86–91.Google Scholar
  97. Keltner, D., Marsh, J., & Smith, J. A. (Eds.). (2010). The compassionate instinct: The science of human goodness. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  98. Keltner, D., Tracy, J., Sauter, D., Cordaro, D. T., & McNeil, G. (2016). Expression of emotion. In L. F. Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (4th ed., pp. 467–482). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  99. Kleinginna, P. R., & Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5(4), 345–379.Google Scholar
  100. Konstan, D. (2006). The emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and classical literature. London, UK: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  101. Koopman-Holm, B., & Matsumoto, D. (2011). Values and display rules for specific emotions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(3), 355–371.Google Scholar
  102. Krebs, J. R., & Dawkins, R. (1984). Animal signals: Mind-reading and manipulation. In J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies (Eds.), Behavioural ecology (2nd ed., pp. 380–402). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  103. Landis, C. (1924). Studies of emotional reactions II: General behavior and facial expression. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 4, 447–509.Google Scholar
  104. Lang, J. (2018). New histories of emotion. History and Theory, 57, 104–120.Google Scholar
  105. Langfeld, H. S. (1917). The judgment of emotions from facial expressions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 13, 172–184.Google Scholar
  106. Levenson, R. W. (2011). Basic emotions questions. Emotion Review, 3(4), 379–386.Google Scholar
  107. Leys, R. (2010). How did fear become a scientific object and what kind of object is it? Representations, 110, 66–104.Google Scholar
  108. Leys, R. (2017). The ascent of affect: Genealogy and critique. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  109. Lorenz, K. Z. (1970). Studies on animal and human behavior (Vol. 1 and 2). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Mace, R., & Holden, C. J. (2005). A phylogenetic approach to cultural evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(3), 116–121.Google Scholar
  111. Marler, P. R., Duffy, A., & Pickert, R. (1986a). Vocal communication in the domestic chicken: I. Does a sender communicate information about the quality of a food referent to a receiver? Animal Behavior, 34, 188–193.Google Scholar
  112. Marler, P. R., Duffy, A., & Pickert, R. (1986b). Vocal communication in the domestic chicken: II. Is a sender sensitive to the presence and nature of a receiver? Animal Behavior, 34, 194–198.Google Scholar
  113. Martin, G. N., & Carlson, N. R. (2019). Psychology (6th ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
  114. Martinez, A. M. (2017). Computational models of face perception. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(3), 263–269.Google Scholar
  115. Matsumoto, D. (2001). Culture and emotion. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 171–194). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2013). Cultural display rules. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), The encyclopedia of cross-cultural psychology (p. 303). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  117. Matsumoto, D., & van de Vijver, F. (Eds.). (2011). Cross-cultural research methods in psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Matsumoto, D., & Willingham, B. (2009). Spontaneous facial expressions of emotion of congenitally and noncongenitally blind individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  119. Matsumoto, D., Consolacion, T., Yamada, H., Suzuki, R., Franklin, B., Paul, S., et al. (2002). American-Japanese cultural differences in judgements of emotional expressions of different intensities. Cognition and Emotion, 16(6), 721–747.Google Scholar
  120. Matsumoto, D., Keltner, D., Shiota, M. N., O’Sullivan, M., & Frank, M. G. (2008). Facial expressions of emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 211–234). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  121. Matsumoto, D., Willingham, B., & Olide, A. (2009). Sequential dynamics of culturally moderated facial expressions of emotion. Psychological Science, 20(10), 1269–1275.Google Scholar
  122. Matsumoto, D., Frank, M. G., & Hwang, H. S. (2013). Nonverbal communication: Science and applications. London, UK: SAGE.Google Scholar
  123. Matt, S. J. (2011). Current emotion research in history: Or, doing history from the inside out. Emotion Review, 3, 117–124.Google Scholar
  124. Medin, D. L., & Bang, M. (2014). Who’s asking? Native science, Western science and science education. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  125. Mendoza Straffon, L. (Ed.). (2016). Cultural phylogenetics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  126. Montagu, J. (1994). The expression of the passions. Yale, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Nelson, N. L., & Russell, J. A. (2013). Universality revisited. Emotion Review, 5(1), 8–15.Google Scholar
  128. Niedenthal, P. M., & Ric, F. (2017). Psychology of emotion (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  129. Niedenthal, P. M., Mermillod, M., Maringer, M., & Hess, U. (2010). The simulation of smiles (SIMS) model: Embodied simulation and the meaning of facial expressions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(6), 417–433.Google Scholar
  130. Niedenthal, P. M., Rychlowska, M., Wood, A., & Zhao, F. (2018). Heterogeneity of long-history migration predicts smiling, laughter and positive emotion across the globe and within the United States. PLoS ONE, 13(8), e0197651.Google Scholar
  131. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315–331.Google Scholar
  132. Panksepp, J., & Watt, D. (2011). What is basic about basic emotions? Lasting lessons from affective neuroscience. Emotion Review, 3(4), 1–10.Google Scholar
  133. Parkinson, B. (2005). Do facial movements express emotions or communicate motives? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(4), 278–311.Google Scholar
  134. Parkinson, B., Fischer, A. H., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2005). Emotion in social relations: Cultural, group, and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  135. Piderit, T. (1867). Wissenschaftliches system der mimik und physiognomik. [Scientific system of mimicry and physiognomy]. Detmold, Germany: Kingenberg.Google Scholar
  136. Plamper, J. (2015). The history of emotions: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Reddy, W. M. (2009). The navigation of feeling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Reisenzein, R., Studtmann, M., & Horstmann, G. (2013). Coherence between emotion and facial expression. Emotion Review, 5(1), 16–23.Google Scholar
  139. Richerson, P. J. (2019). An integrated Bayesian theory of phenotypic flexibility. Behavioural Processes.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.002.
  140. Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  141. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1992). Pygmalion in the classroom (Expanded ed.). New York, NY: Irvington.Google Scholar
  142. Rosenwein, B. H. (2014). Modernity: A problematic category in the history of emotion. History and Theory, 53, 69–78.Google Scholar
  143. Ross, S. (1984). Painting the passions: Charles LeBrun’s Conference sur l’expression. Journal of the History of Ideas, 45, 25–47.Google Scholar
  144. Rozin, P., & Cohen, A. B. (2003). High frequency of facial expressions corresponding to confusion, concentration, and worry in an analysis of naturally occurring facial expressions of Americans. Emotion, 3, 68–75.Google Scholar
  145. Russell, J. A. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 102–141.Google Scholar
  146. Russell, J. A. (1995). Facial expressions of emotion: What lies beyond minimal universality? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 379–391.Google Scholar
  147. Russell, J. A. (2009). Emotion, core affect, and psychological construction. Cognition and Emotion, 23(7), 1259–1283.Google Scholar
  148. Russell, J. A., Bachorowski, J. A., & Fernández-Dols, J. M. (2003). Facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 329–349.Google Scholar
  149. Rychlowska, M., Cañadas, E., Wood, A., Krumhuber, E. G., Fischer, A., & Niedenthal, P. M. (2014). Blocking mimicry makes true and false smiles look the same. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e90876.Google Scholar
  150. Rychlowska, M., Miyamoto, Y., Matsumoto, D., Hess, U., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Kamble, S., et al. (2015). Heterogeneity of long-history migration explains cultural differences in reports of emotional expressivity and the functions of smiles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 112(19), 2429–2436.Google Scholar
  151. Sauter, D. (2017). The nonverbal communication of positive emotions: An emotion family approach. Emotion Review, 9(3), 222–234.Google Scholar
  152. Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S. K. (2015). Emotional vocalizations are recognized across cultures regardless of the valence of distractors. Psychological Science, 26(3), 354–356.Google Scholar
  153. Scarantino, A. (2017). How to do things with emotional expressions: The theory of affective pragmatics. Psychological Inquiry, 28(2–3), 165–185.Google Scholar
  154. Scherer, K. R., & Wallbott, H. G. (1994). Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 310–328.Google Scholar
  155. Schmidt, K. L., & Cohn, J. F. (2001). Human facial expressions as adaptations: Evolutionary questions in facial expression research. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 44, 3–24.Google Scholar
  156. Schützwohl, A., & Reisenzein, R. (2012). Facial expressions in response to a highly surprising event exceeding the field of vision: A test of Darwin’s theory of surprise. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(6), 657–664.Google Scholar
  157. Shariff, A. F., & Tracy, J. L. (2011). What are emotion expressions for? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 395–399.Google Scholar
  158. Shiota, M. N., & Kalat, J. W. (2017). Emotion (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Shiota, M. N., Campos, B., & Keltner, D. (2003). The faces of positive emotion: prototype displays of awe, amusement, and pride. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 296–299.Google Scholar
  160. Sihvola, J., & Engberg-Pedersen, T. (Eds.). (1998). The emotions in Hellenistic Philosophy. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  161. Smith, W. J. (1977). The behavior of communicating. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Sng, O., Neuberg, S. L., Varnum, M. E. W., & Kenrisk, D. T. (2018). The behavioral ecology of cultural psychological variation. Psychological Review, 125(5), 714–743.Google Scholar
  163. Snyder, P. J., Kaufman, R., Harrison, J., & Maruff, P. (2010). Charles Darwin’s emotional expression “experiment” and his contribution to modern neuropharmacology. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 19(2), 158–170.Google Scholar
  164. Solomon, R. C. (2007). What is an emotion? (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Stearns, P. N., & Stearns, C. Z. (1985). Emotionology: Clarifying the history of emotions and emotional standards. American Historical Review, 90, 813–836.Google Scholar
  166. Tinbergen, N. (1953). Social behavior in animals. London, UK: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  167. Tomkins, S. S. (1962). Affect, imagery, consciousness. Vol. I: The positive affects. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  168. Tomkins, S. S. (1963). Affect, imagery, consciousness. Vol. II: The negative affects. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  169. Tomkins, S. S. (1991). Affect, imagery, consciousness. Vol. III: The negative affects: Anger and fear. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  170. Tomkins, S. S. (1992). Affect, imagery, consciousness. Vol. IV: Cognition: Duplication and transformation of information. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  171. Tomkins, S. S., & McCarter, R. (1964). What and where are the primary affects? Some evidence for a theory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 18, 119–158.Google Scholar
  172. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1990). The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11, 375–424.Google Scholar
  173. Tracy, J. L. (2014). An evolutionary approach to understanding distinct emotions. Emotion Review, 6(4), 308–312.Google Scholar
  174. Tracy, J. L. (2016). Take pride: Why the deadliest sin holds the secret to human success. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  175. Tracy, J. L., & Randles, D. (2011). Four models of basic emotions: A review of Ekman and Cordaro, Izard, Levenson, and Panksepp and Watt. Emotion Review, 3, 397–405.Google Scholar
  176. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Show your pride: Evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychological Science, 15(3), 194–197.Google Scholar
  177. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2008). The nonverbal expressions of pride: Evidence for cross-cultural recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 516–530.Google Scholar
  178. Tracy, J. L., Randles, D., & Steckler, C. M. (2015). The nonverbal communication of emotion. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3, 25–30.Google Scholar
  179. U. S. Government Accountability Office. (2013). TSA should limit future funding for behavior detection activities (GAO Publication No. 14-158T). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved at https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-158T.
  180. U. S. Government Accountability Office. (2018). Counterterrorism: DOD should fully address security assistance planning elements in global train and equip project proposals (GAO Publication No. 18-449). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved at https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-18-449.
  181. Vrij, A., Granhag, P. A., & Porter, S. (2011). Pitfalls and opportunities in nonverbal and verbal lie detection. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11(3), 89–121.Google Scholar
  182. Wagner, H. L., & Smith, J. (1991). Facial expression in the presence of friends and strangers. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15, 201–214.Google Scholar
  183. Waller, B. M., Whitehouse, J., & Micheletta, J. (2018). Rethinking primate facial expression: A predictive framework. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 82, 13–21.Google Scholar
  184. Whiten, A., Ayala, F. J., Feldman, M. W., & Laland, K. N. (2017). The extension of biology through culture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 114, 7775–7781.Google Scholar
  185. Wundt, W. (1897). Outlines of psychology (C. H. Judd, Trans.). Oxford, UK: Engelman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Psychological Science, School of Applied Social SciencesDe Montfort UniversityLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesUniversity of California, Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations