Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 307–317 | Cite as

Competent and Warm but Unemotional: The Influence of Occupational Stereotypes on the Attribution of Emotions

  • Shlomo HareliEmail author
  • Shlomo David
  • Ursula HessEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The present research aims to assess how occupational stereotypes, and in particular, stereotypes about doctors, influence the observers’ perception of the emotions expressed by members of this group. For this, 60 men and women judged the emotions of women who expressed either happiness, anger, sadness, or a neutral expression and whose faces were either uncovered or covered with a surgical mask, a niqab, or a hat and scarf such that only an identical portion of the face around the eyes was visible. Congruent with the occupational stereotype, women dressed as doctors were perceived highest on competence and warmth, but also as emotionally restrained such that they were rated as experiencing lower levels of emotions relative to the same women wearing other face covers or with uncovered faces.

Keywords

Occupational stereotypes Facial expressions Emotion perception 

References

  1. Algoe, S., Buswell, B., & DeLamater, J. (2000). Gender and job status as contextual cues for the interpretation of facial expression of emotion. Sex Roles, 42, 183–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aviezer, H., Hassin, R., Ryan, J., Grady, C., Susskind, J., Anderson, A., et al. (2008). Angry, disgusted, or afraid? Studies on the malleability of emotion perception. Psychological Science, 19, 724–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, L., Clardy, J., Cleveland, E., & O’sullivan, P. (2008). Is there hardening of the heart during medical school? Academic Medicine, 83, 244–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S., Jolliffe, T., Mortimore, C., & Robertson, M. (1997a). Another advanced test of theory of mind: Evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(7), 813–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, T. (1997b). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4, 311–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaupré, M. G., & Hess, U. (2005). Cross-cultural emotion recognition among Canadian ethnic groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogart, L. M., Bird, S. T., Walt, L. C., Delahanty, D. L., & Figler, J. L. (2004). Association of stereotypes about physicians to health care satisfaction, help-seeking behavior, and adherence to treatment. Social Science & Medicine, 58(6), 1049–1058. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00277-6.
  8. Boucher, J. D., & Ekman, P. (1975). Facial areas and emotional information. Journal of Communication, 25(2), 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buck, R. (1984). Nonverbal receiving ability. In R. Buck (Ed.), The communication of emotion (pp. 209–242). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Couch, J. V., & Sigler, J. N. (2001). Gender perception of professional occupations. Psychological Reports, 88(3), 693–698. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2001.88.3.693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. In P. Z. Mark (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 40, pp. 61–149). New York, NY: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demoulin, S., & Teixeira, C. P. (2010). Social categorization in interpersonal negotiation: How social structural factors shape negotiations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13(6), 765–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., O’Sullivan, M., Chan, A., Diacoyanni-Tarlatzis, I., Heider, K., et al. (1987). Universals and cultural differences in the judgements of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 712–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 203–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Feldman, J. M. (1972). Stimulus characteristics and subject prejudice as determinants of stereotype attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer, A. H., Gillebaart, M., Rotteveel, M., Becker, D., & Vliek, M. (2012). Veiled emotions: The effect of covered faces on emotion perception and attitudes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glick, P., Wilk, K., & Perreault, M. (1995). Images of occupations: Components of gender and status in occupational stereotypes. Sex Roles, 32, 564–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hareli, S., & Hess, U. (2010). What emotional reactions can tell us about the nature of others: An appraisal perspective on person perception. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 128–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris, C. M. (1981). Medical stereotypes. British Medical Journal, 283(6307), 1676–1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hess, U., Adams, R. B, Jr, & Kleck, R. E. (2004). Facial appearance, gender, and emotion expression. Emotion, 4, 378–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hess, U., Adams, R. B, Jr, & Kleck, R. E. (2005). Who may frown and who should smile? Dominance, affiliation, and the display of happiness and anger. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 515–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hess, U., Adams, R. B., Simard, A., Stevenson, M. T., & Kleck, R. E. (2012). Smiling and sad wrinkles: Age-related changes in the face and the perception of emotions and intentions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1377–1380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hess, U., Senécal, S., Kirouac, G., Herrera, P., Philippot, P., & Kleck, R. E. (2000). Emotional expressivity in men and women: Stereotypes and self-perceptions. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 609–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hugenberg, K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2003). Facing prejudice: Implicit prejudice and the perception of facial threat. Psychological Science, 14, 640–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jangland, E., Gunningberg, L., & Carlsson, M. (2009). Patients’ and relatives’ complaints about encounters and communication in health care: Evidence for quality improvement. Patient Education and Counseling, 75, 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaler, S. R., Levy, D. A., & Schall, M. (1989). Stereotypes of Professional Roles. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 21, 85–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karniol, R. (1990). Reading people’s minds: A transformation rule model for predicting others’ thoughts and feelings. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 211–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirouac, G., & Hess, U. (1999). Group membership and the decoding of nonverbal behavior. In P. Philippot, R. Feldman, & E. Coats (Eds.), The social context of nonverbal behavior (pp. 182–210). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lill, M. M., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2005). Judging a book by its cover. BMJ, 331, 1524–1527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luthy, C., Cedraschi, C., Perrin, E., & Allaz, A. F. (2005). How do patients define “good” and “bad” doctors? Swiss Medical Weekly, 135, 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mahaffey, A. L., Bryan, A., & Hutchison, K. (2005). Using startle eye blink to measure the affective component of antigay bias. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Motley, M. T., & Camden, C. T. (1988). Facial expression of emotion: A comparison of posed expressions versus spontaneous expressions in an interpersonal communications setting. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 52, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Russell, J. A., & Fehr, B. (1987). Relativity in the perception of emotion in facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Russell, J. A., Suzuki, N., & Ishida, N. (1993). Canadian, Greek, and Japanese freely produced emotion labels for facial expressions. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Warner, L. A., & Shields, S. A. (2007). The perception of crying in women and men: Angry tears, sad tears, and the “right way” to cry. In U. Hess & P. Philippot (Eds.), Group dynamics and emotional expression (pp. 92–117). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yrizarry, N., Matsumoto, D., & Wilson-Cohn, C. (1998). American-Japanese differences in multiscalar intensity ratings of universal facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 22, 315–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ManagementUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyHumboldt-University, BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations