Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 217–225 | Cite as

A Fake Smile Thwarts Cheater Detection

  • Matia Okubo
  • Akihiro Kobayashi
  • Kenta Ishikawa
Brief Report

Abstract

People can discriminate cheaters from cooperators on the basis of negative facial expressions. However, such cheater detection is far from perfect in real-world situations. Therefore, it is possible that cheaters have the ability to disguise negative emotional expressions that signal their uncooperative attitude. To test this possibility, emotional intensity and trustworthiness were evaluated for facial photographs of cheaters and cooperators defined by scores in an economic game. The facial photographs had either posed happy or angry expressions. The angry expressions of cheaters were rated angrier and less trustworthy than those of cooperators. On the other hand, happy expressions of cheaters were higher in emotional intensity but comparable to those of cooperators in trustworthiness. These results suggest that cheater detection based on the processing of negative facial expressions can be thwarted by a posed or fake smile, which cheaters put on with higher intensity than cooperators.

Keywords

Facial expression Facial trustworthiness Cheater detection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by the grant of Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities from MEXT, Japan, 2011–2015 (S1101013).

References

  1. Boone, R. T., & Buck, R. (2003). Emotional expressivity and trustworthiness: The role of nonverbal behavior in the evolution of cooperation. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 163–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, W. M., Palameta, B., & Moore, C. (2003). Are there non-verbal cues to commitment? An exploratory study using the zero-acquaintance video presentation paradigm. Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 42–69.Google Scholar
  3. Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Losch, M. E. (1986). Attributions of responsibility for helping and doing harm: Evidence for confusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 100–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carré, J. M., & McCormick, C. M. (2008). In your face: Facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275, 2651–2656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carré, J. M., McCormick, C. M., & Mondloch, C. J. (2009). Facial structure is a reliable cue of aggressive behavior. Psychological Science, 20, 1194–1198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31, 187–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1982). Felt, false, and miserable smiles. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 6, 238–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & O’Sullivan, M. (1988). Smiles when lying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 414–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Krumhuber, E., Manstead, A. S. R., Cosker, D., Marshall, D., Rosin, P. L., & Kappas, A. (2007). Facial dynamics as indicators of trustworthiness and cooperative behavior. Emotion, 7, 730–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Oda, R., Naganawa, T., Yamauchi, S., Yamagata, N., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2009a). Altruists are trusted based on non-verbal cues. Biology Letters, 5, 752–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oda, R., Yamagata, N., Yabiku, Y., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2009b). Altruism can be assessed correctly based on impression. Human Nature, 20, 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2008). The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11087–11092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2009). Shared perceptual basis of emotional expressions and trustworthiness impressions from faces. Emotion, 9, 128–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ozono, H., Watabe, M., Yoshikawa, S., Nakashima, S., Rule, N. O., Ambady, N., et al. (2010). What’s in a smile? Cultural differences in the effects of smiling on judgments of trustworthiness. Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 1, 15–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schug, J., Matsumoto, D., Horita, Y., Yamagishi, T., & Bonnet, K. (2010). Emotional expressivity as a signal of cooperation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Smith, C. A., McHugo, G. J., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1986). The facial muscle patterning of posed and imagery-induced expressions of emotions by expressive and nonexpressive posers. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 133–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stirrat, M., & Perrett, D. I. (2010). Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: Male facial width and trustworthiness. Psychological Science, 21, 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vanneste, S., Verplaetse, J., Van Hiel, A., & Braeckman, J. (2007). Attention bias toward noncooperative people: A dot probe classification study in cheating detection. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 272–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Verdonck, A., Gaethofs, M., Carels, C., & de Zegher, F. (1999). Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on cranifacial growth in boys with delayed puberty. European Journal of Orthodontics, 21, 137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Verplaetse, J., Vanneste, S., & Braeckman, J. (2007). You can judge a book by its cover: The sequel. A kernel of evolutionary truth in predictive cheating detection. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 260–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Weston, E. M., Friday, A. E., & Lio, P. (2007). Biometric evidence that sexual selection has shaped the hominid face. PLoS One, 2, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matia Okubo
    • 1
  • Akihiro Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Kenta Ishikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySenshu UniversityTama-ku, KawasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations