Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 1–15 | Cite as

Effects of Dynamic Attributes of Smiles in Human and Synthetic Faces: A Simulated Job Interview Setting

  • Eva KrumhuberEmail author
  • Antony S. R. Manstead
  • Darren Cosker
  • Dave Marshall
  • Paul L. Rosin
Original Paper


We examined the effects of the temporal quality of smile displays on impressions and decisions made in a simulated job interview. We also investigated whether similar judgments were made in response to synthetic (Study 1) and human facial stimuli (Study 2). Participants viewed short video excerpts of female interviewees exhibiting dynamic authentic smiles, dynamic fake smiles, or neutral expressions, and rated them with respect to a number of attributes. In both studies, perceivers’ judgments and employment decisions were significantly shaped by the temporal quality of smiles, with dynamic authentic smiles generally leading to more favorable job, person, and expression ratings than dynamic fake smiles or neutral expressions. Furthermore, authentically smiling interviewees were judged to be more suitable and were more likely to be short-listed and selected for the job. The findings show a high degree of correspondence in the effects created by synthetic and human facial stimuli, suggesting that temporal features of smiles similarly influence perceivers’ judgments and decisions across the two types of stimulus.


Facial expression Smile Dynamics Job Social perception Decision 



The authors would like to thank the three human posers who participated in this research, Geoff Thomas and two anonymous reviewers for comments on previous versions of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eva Krumhuber
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antony S. R. Manstead
    • 2
  • Darren Cosker
    • 3
  • Dave Marshall
    • 4
  • Paul L. Rosin
    • 4
  1. 1.Swiss Center for Affective SciencesCISA - University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.School of PsychologyCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of BathBathUK
  4. 4.School of Computer ScienceCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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