Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 119–135 | Cite as

Enhanced Experience of Emotional Arousal in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

  • Wataru SatoEmail author
  • Sakiko Yoshikawa
Original Paper


In this study, we investigated the emotional effect of dynamic presentation of facial expressions. Dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions were presented using computer-morphing (Experiment 1) and videos of natural changes (Experiment 2), as well as other dynamic and static mosaic images. Participants rated the valence and arousal of their emotional response to the stimuli. The participants consistently reported higher arousal responses to dynamic than to static presentation of facial expressions and mosaic images for both valences. Dynamic presentation had no effect on the valence ratings. These results suggest that dynamic presentation of emotional facial expressions enhances the overall emotional experience without a corresponding qualitative change in the experience, although this effect is not specific to facial images.


Dynamic presentation Emotional facial expressions Emotional arousal 



The authors heartily thank Dr. Robert F. Simons, Dr. Monica Harris, and anonymous reviewers for their helpful advice. This study was supported by Special Coordination Funds for promoting Science and Technology from the Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese government, and by a Research Fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Comparative Study of Cognitive Development (funded by Benesse Corporation)Primate Research Institute, Kyoto UniversityKanrin, InuyamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Cognitive Psychology in EducationKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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