Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 91–104 | Cite as

Scalar Ratings Of Contempt Expressions

  • David Matsumoto
Article

Abstract:

This article reports two studies examining the recognition of unilateral lip raise and tighten expressions as contempt using scalar ratings on multiple emotion categories. Study 1 demonstrated that American and Japanese observers see these expressions as contempt, that the Japanese had significantly higher recognition rates, and that this difference occurred because Americans gave the anger and disgust labels higher ratings than did the Japanese. Study 2 replicated the finding that Americans see the contempt expressions as contempt, and did so regardless of whether they rated the external display of the expression or made an attribution about the internal experience of the expressor. This study is the first to show that native English speakers judge the contempt expressions as contempt using this task, although much inconsistency in judgments of contempt remains unexplained.

Keywords

contempt culture judgment scalar ratings universality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Biehl, M., Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P., Hearn, V., Heider, K., Kudoh, T., Ton, V. 1997Matsumoto and Ekman’s Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) Reliability data and cross-national differencesJournal of Nonverbal Behavior.21321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ekman, P. 1994Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell’s mistaken critiquePsychological Bulletin.115268287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. 1971Constants across culture in the face and emotionJournal of Personality and Social Psychology.17124129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V. 1978Facial action coding system: Investigator’s guideConsulting Psychologists PressPalo Alto, CalifGoogle Scholar
  5. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V. 1986A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotionMotivation Emotion.10159168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ekman, P., Heider, K.G. 1988The universality of a contempt expression: A replicationMotivation & Emotion.12303308Google Scholar
  7. Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., Matsumoto, D. 1991Confusions about context in the judgment of facial expression A reply to The contempt expression and the relativity thesisMotivation & Emotion.15169176Google Scholar
  8. Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., Matsumoto, D. 1991Contradictions in the study of contempt:What’s it all about? Reply to RussellMotivation & Emotion.15293296Google Scholar
  9. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E.R., Friesen, W.V. 1969Pancultural elements in facial displays of emotionScience.1648688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frijda, N.H., Tcherkassof, A. 1997Facial expressions as modes of action readinessRussell, J.A.Fernandez-Dols, J.M. eds. The psychology of facial expression.Cambridge University PressNew York78102Google Scholar
  11. Haidt, J., Keltner, D. 1999Culture and facial expression: Open-ended methods find more expressions and a gradient of recognitionCognition & Emotion.13225266Google Scholar
  12. Izard, C.E. 1971The face of emotionAppleton-Century-CroftsEast Norwalk, CTGoogle Scholar
  13. Izard, C.E. 1992Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relationsPsychological Review.99561565CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Matsumoto, D. 1989Face, culture, and judgments of anger and fear Do the eyes have it?Journal of Nonverbal Behavior.1171188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Matsumoto, D. 1992More evidence for the universality of a contempt expressionMotivation & Emotion.16363368Google Scholar
  16. Matsumoto, D., Consolacion, T., Yamada, H., Suzuki, R., Franklin, B., Paul, S., Ray, R., Uchida, H. 2002American-Japanese cultural differences in judgments of emotional expressions of different intensitiesCognition & Emotion.16721747Google Scholar
  17. Matsumoto D., Ekman P. (1988). Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion and Neutral Faces (JACFEE and JACNeuF). Available from www.paulekman.com.Google Scholar
  18. Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P. 1989American-Japanese cultural differences in intensity ratings of facial expressions of emotionMotivation & Emotion.13143157Google Scholar
  19. Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P. 2004The relationship between expressions, labels, and descriptions of contemptJournal of Personality and Social Psychology.87529540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Matsumoto, D., Kasri, F., Kooken, K. 1999American-Japanese cultural differences in judgments of expression intensity and subjective experienceCognition & Emotion.13201218Google Scholar
  21. Ricci-Bitti, P.E., Brighetti, G., Garotti, P.L., Boggi-Cavallo, P. 1989Is contempt expressed by pancultural facial movements?Forgas, J.P.Innes, J.M. eds. Recent advances in social psychology An international perspective.ElsevierAmsterdam, NL329339Google Scholar
  22. Rosenberg, E.L., Ekman, P. 1995Conceptual and methodological issues in the judgment of facial expressions of emotionMotivation & Emotion.19111138Google Scholar
  23. Rozin, P., Lowery, L., Imada, S., Haidt, J. 1999The CAD triad hypothesis: A mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity)Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.75574585Google Scholar
  24. Russell, J.A. 1991The contempt expression and the universality thesisMotivation & Emotion.15149168Google Scholar
  25. Russell, J.A. 1991Culture and the categorization of emotionsPsychological Bulletin.110426450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Russell, J.A. 1991Negative results on a reported facial expression of contemptMotivation & Emotion.15281291Google Scholar
  27. Shaver, P., Murdaya, U., Fraley R., C. 2001The structure of the Indonesian emotion lexiconAsian Journal of Social Psychology.4201224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J.C., Kirson, D., O’Connor, C. 1987Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approachJournal of Personality and Social Psychology.5210611086CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Shaver, P.R., Wu, S., Schwartz, J.C. 1992Cross-cultural similarities and differences in emotion and its representationClark, M.S. eds. Emotion Review of personality and social psychology.SageThousand Oaks, CA175212Google Scholar
  30. Wagner H., L. 2000The accessibility of the term contempt and the meaning of the unilateral lip curlCognition & Emotion.14689710Google Scholar
  31. Yrizarry, N., Matsumoto, D., Wilson-Cohn, C. 1998American-Japanese differences in multiscalar intensity ratings of universal facial expressions of emotionMotivation & Emotion.22315327Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations