An Effective Design of Wearable Antenna with Double Flexible Substrates and Defected Ground Structure for Healthcare Monitoring System

  • Ameena Banu MustafaEmail author
  • Tamilselvi Rajendran
Mobile & Wireless Health
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Wearable Computing Techniques for Smart Health


Due to the development of modern wearable mobile devices, the need of antenna with smaller size and internally flexible to fit becomes necessary. Miniaturization of Micro Strip Patch (MSP) antenna increases its employability for communication in different aspects. The use of flexible material for the fabrication of MSP antenna still improves its use for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) which includes devices for monitoring systems in military, surveillance and medical applications. The devices designed specifically in Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band are used for communication in these applications. Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is adopted as an emerging technique for improving the various parameters of microwave circuits, that is, narrow bandwidth, cross-polarization, low gain, and so forth. In this paper, the design of compact micro strip patch antenna using different flexible substrate materials with DGS is proposed to resonate the antenna at 2.45GHz ISM band which can be used as biomedical sensors. Felt and Teflon with dielectric constant 1.36 and 2.1respectively are chosen as flexible substrate material among various flexible materials like cotton, rubber, paper, jeans etc. Using CST studio suite software, the designed antenna is simulated and the fabricated antenna is tested with Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The performance parameters like return loss, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of the antenna are analyzed.


CST software ISM band WBAN Defected ground structure VNA Return loss Directivity Gain Flexible dielectric materials Teflon Felt 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The Authors and Co-Authors have no conflicts of Interests. The Paper is not submitted to any other Journals. This is solely submitted to this Journal.

Ethical approval (involving human participants and/or animals)

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

No humans or animals were involved. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


  1. 1.
    Werfelli, H., Tayari, K., Chaoui, M and et al Design of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna. 2nd International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Signal and Image Processing (ATSIP), 2016. DOI: 10.1109/atsip.2016.7523197Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Panda, J. R., Saladi, A. S. R., and Kshetrimayum, R. S., A Compact printed monopole antenna for dual-band RFID and WLAN applications. Radioengineering 20(2), 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    AdashivChougule, J. S., and Wali, D. U. V., Design of Flexible Microstrip Antenna for wearable application. International Journal for Research in Emerging Science and Technology 2(6), 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sidhu, E., Mittal, D., Sainiand, S. S., et al., Flexible Microstrip Patch Antenna Designs for Bluetooth, IMT, WLAN and WiMAX Applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium — Spring (PIERS), St Petersburg, 2017. 10.1109/piers.2017.8261881Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sánchez-Montero, R., Camacho-Gómez, C., López-Espí, P.-L. et al., Optimal Design of a Planar Textile Antenna for Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) with the CRO-SL Algorithm. Sensors 2018:18, 1982. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rais, N. H. M., Soh, P. J., and Malek, F., et al., A review of wearable antenna. Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, 2009.
  7. 7.
    Corchia, L., De Benedetto, E., Monti, G. and et al. Wearable antennas for applications in remote assistance to elderly people. 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Measurement and Networking (M&N), pp. 1–6, Naples, 2017 DOI:
  8. 8.
    Salvado, R., Loss, C., Gonçalves, R. et al., Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey. Sensors 12:15841–1585n7, 2012. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fotiadis, D. I., Glaros, C., Likas, A., Wearable Medical Devices, 2009. 10.1002/9780471740360.ebs1326Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ankita Priya, Ayush Kumar, BrajlataChauhan, A Review of Textile and Cloth Fabric Wearable Antennas, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975–8887) Volume 116 – No. 17, 2015 10.5120/20425-2741Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nadh, B. P., Madhav, B. T. P., Kumar, M. S. et al., Asymmetric ground structured circularly polarized antenna for ISM and WLAN band applications. Progress in Electromagnetics Research M 76:167–175, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ram Krishna, R. V. S., and Kumar, R., A Dual-Polarized Square-ring slot antenna for UWB, imaging, and radar applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 15, 2015.
  13. 13.
    Kiani, S. H., Mahmood, K., Munir, M. et al., A novel Design of Patch Antenna using U-slot and defected ground structure. (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 8(3), 2017.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weng, L. H., Guo, Y. C., Shi, X. W. et al., An overview on defected ground structure. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B 7:173–189, 2008. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khandelwal, M. K., Kumar, S., and Kanaujia, B. K., Defected Ground Structure: Fundamentals, Analysis and Applications in Modern Wireless Trends. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation:2018527, 2017.
  16. 16.
    Melkeri, V, Mallikarjun, S.L., Hunagund, P.V., Microstrip Antenna with Defected Ground Structure: A Review. International Journal of Electrical Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, ISSN: 2051–3240, Vol. 46, Issue.1Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guha, D., Biswas, S., Biswas, M. et al., Concentric ring-shaped defected ground structures for microstrip applications. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2006.
  18. 18.
    Sankaralingam, S., and Gupta, B., Development of textile antennas for body wearable applications and investigations on their performance under bent conditions. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B 22:53–71, 2010. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tanaka, M., Jae-Hyeuk, J., Wearable microstrip antenna. The Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2003.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santas, J.G., Alomainy, A., Yang, H., Textile antennas for on body communications: Techniques and properties. The Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2007, 2007. 10.1049/ic.2007.1064Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Corchia, L., Monti, G., and De Benedetto, E., et al., Wearable antennas for remote health care monitoring systems. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation:3012341, 2017.
  22. 22.
    Fernandes, H. C. C., Da Silva, J. L., and Neto, A. S. E S., Multi-frequency microstrip antenna using defected ground structures with band-notched characteristics. 2017Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elftouh, H., Touhami, N. A., Aghoutane, M. et al., Miniaturized microstrip patch antenna with defected ground structure. Progress in Electromagnetics Research C 55:25–33, 2014.
  24. 24.
    Rivera-Albino, A., and Balanis, C. A., Gain enhancement in micro strip patch antennas using hybrid substrates. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 12:476–479, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Majumder, S., Mondal, T., and Jamal Deen, M., Wearable sensors for remote health monitoring. Sensors 17:130, 2017. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Balanis Constantine, A. Antenna theory: analysis and design. John Wiley & Sons, 2016. ISBN-13: 978–0471667827 ISBN-10: 047166782XGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ali, Z., Singh, V. K., and Singh, A. K., Design and performance improvement of wearable antenna. Journal of Microwave Engineering & Technologies 1(2), 2014.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kiani, S. H., Mahmood, K., Shafeeq, S. et al., A novel Design of Miniaturized Patch Antenna Using Different Substrates for S-band and C-band applications. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA) 7(7), 2016.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ameena Banu, M., Vijayarangan, V., and Sindhuja, J., Design of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna with hybrid substrate for gain and efficiency enhancement. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 9(24):7977–7983, 2014.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    AhamedKandu Sahib, S. K. A., AmeenaBanu, M., Lakshmi, M., And, K. et al., Design and fabrication of triangular shape microstrip patch antenna using lanthanides. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 4(4):1545–1547, 2017.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manzoor, Z., and Moradi, G., Optimization of impedance bandwidth of a stacked microstrip patch antenna with the shape of parasitic Patch's slots. Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. J. 30:9, 2015.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mandal, K., and Sarkar, P. P., High gain wide-band U-shaped patch antennas with modified ground planes. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61(4):2279–2282, 2013. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ECESethu Institute of TechnologyVirudhunagar DistrictIndia

Personalised recommendations