An Accurate Recognition of Infrared Retro-Reflective Markers in Surgical Navigation

  • Han Wu
  • Qinyong Lin
  • Rongqian YangEmail author
  • Yuan Zhou
  • Lingxiang Zheng
  • Yueshan Huang
  • Zhigang Wang
  • Yonghua Lao
  • Jinhua Huang
Systems-Level Quality Improvement
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Systems-Level Quality Improvement


Marker-based optical tracking systems (OTS) are widely used in clinical image-guided therapy. However, the emergence of ghost markers, which is caused by the mistaken recognition of markers and the incorrect correspondences between marker projections, may lead to tracking failures for these systems. Therefore, this paper proposes a strategy to prevent the emergence of ghost markers by identifying markers based on the features of their projections, finding the correspondences between marker projections based on the geometric information provided by markers, and fast-tracking markers in a 2D image between frames based on the sizes of their projections. Apart from validating its high robustness, the experimental results show that the proposed strategy can accurately recognize markers, correctly identify their correspondences, and meet the requirements of real-time tracking.


Optical tracking system Marker recognition Accurate stereo-matching Ghost-markers elimination Fast-tracking 



This study was supported by the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (81671788), the Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Program (2016A020220006, 2017B020210008, and 2017B010110015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017 M612671), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (2017ZD082, x2yxD2182720), the Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (201704020228), and the Chinese Scholarship Fund (201806155010).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest related to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Han Wu
    • 1
  • Qinyong Lin
    • 1
  • Rongqian Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yuan Zhou
    • 1
  • Lingxiang Zheng
    • 1
  • Yueshan Huang
    • 1
  • Zhigang Wang
    • 4
  • Yonghua Lao
    • 1
  • Jinhua Huang
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center for Translational Medicine of Mental DisordersGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Guangzhou Aimooe Technology Co., Ltd.GuangzhouChina
  5. 5.Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer CenterGuangzhouChina

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