Application of PDF Software with 3D Functionalities in Radiological Models of the Skull Base: Characteristics, Experience and Solutions

  • Roberto D. Tabernero RicoEmail author
  • Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez
  • Alberto Prats-Galino
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Technological Innovations in Biomedical Training and Practice (TEEM 2018)


A widely known alternative for reading and exchanging digital files is the PDF file, by Adobe. This type of file has become the most used for the electronic exchange of files. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data in electronic academic publication. PDF can support additional resources such image, media, even, three-dimensional surface mesh models. A three-dimensional model of the base of the skull is generated from computed tomography images to provide an overview of the PDF file format, with emphasis on biomedical images. Three-dimensional representation in PDF files offers many advantages, as these images have more information than two-dimensional images, therefore, we consider this tool (3D PDF) a good alternative for the visualization, interaction and distribution of 3D content.


3D PDF Tridimensional images Interactive visualization Skull base 


Compliance with ethical standards

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The author declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital Virgen Concha, Complejo Asistencial de ZamoraZamoraSpain
  2. 2.VisualMed System GroupUniversity of SalamancaSalamancaSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of Surgical NeuroAnatomy, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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