Annotating Early Esophageal Cancers Based on Two Saliency Levels of Gastroscopic Images
Early diagnoses of esophageal cancer can greatly improve the survival rate of patients. At present, the lesion annotation of early esophageal cancers (EEC) in gastroscopic images is generally performed by medical personnel in a clinic. To reduce the effect of subjectivity and fatigue in manual annotation, computer-aided annotation is required. However, automated annotation of EEC lesions using images is a challenging task owing to the fine-grained variability in the appearance of EEC lesions. This study modifies the traditional EEC annotation framework and utilizes visual salient information to develop a two saliency levels-based lesion annotation (TSL-BLA) for EEC annotations on gastroscopic images. Unlike existing methods, the proposed framework has a strong ability of constraining false positive outputs. What is more, TSL-BLA is also placed an additional emphasis on the annotation of small EEC lesions. A total of 871 gastroscopic images from 231 patients were used to validate TSL-BLA. 365 of those images contain 434 EEC lesions and 506 images do not contain any lesions. 101 small lesion regions are extracted from the 434 lesions to further validate the performance of TSL-BLA. The experimental results show that the mean detection rate and Dice similarity coefficients of TSL-BLA were 97.24 and 75.15%, respectively. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, TSL-BLA shows better performance. Moreover, it shows strong superiority when annotating small EEC lesions. It also produces fewer false positive outputs and has a fast running speed. Therefore, The proposed method has good application prospects in aiding clinical EEC diagnoses.
KeywordsGastroscopic image Early esophageal cancer Lesion annotation Visual saliency Superpixel segmentation
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61,872,405 and 61,720,106,004), the Sichuan Science and Technology Support Program (2015SZ0191), Key Project of Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2016A030311040), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (ZYGX2016J189) and Scientific Platform Improvement Project of UESTC.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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