Design of NIRS Probe Based on Computational Model to Find Out the Optimal Location for Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation
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The paper presents a computational model to analyse the electric field distribution on the cerebral cortex during high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) technique. The current research aims to improve the focality in term of magnitude of electric field (norm [E]) and magnitude of current density (norm [J]) in the gyri and sulci of white matter. The proposed computational model is used to predict the magnitude of current density and magnitude of electric field distribution generated across the target region of cerebral cortex for specific small size 1 × 1 cm2 multi-electrode HD-tDCS configurations. The current works aims at optimizing the number of electrodes and current density for multielectrode HD-tDCS configuration and weak current intensity is obtained by calculating surface area and penetration depth of target region of cerebral cortex. In terms of surface area and penetration depth 4 × 1 HD-tDCS and 2 mA weak dc current configuration has been selected. The optimized 4 × 1 HD-tDCS configuration is placed on target location of the brain surface and the changes in the magnitude of current density and magnitude of electric field distribution is calculated at the different locations on brain surface including scalp surface, skull surface gray matter and white matter surface. The variation in magnitude electric field distribution is seen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray and white matter surface of target cerebral cortex. Based on the insights received from the variation in the magnitude of current density and magnitude of electric field distribution, the design of an appropriate NIRS probe has been proposed to aid in non-invasive brain stimulation. Designed NIRS probe is based on distance of separation between source and photodetector to cover the affected area with 4 × 1 HD-tDCS technique and measurement sensitivity distribution at gray matter surface of cerebral cortex. The estimated percentage of pixel area of measurement sensitivity distribution is 17.094%, which confirm to cover the 7.9384% distributed pixel area in term of calculated magnitude of current density affected with 4 × 1 HD-tDCS configuration.
KeywordsNear infrared spectroscopy Non-invasive brain stimulation High definition transcranial current stimulation Magnetic resonance image Cerebrospinal fluid Finite element analysis
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional ethics committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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