Healthcare Blockchain System Using Smart Contracts for Secure Automated Remote Patient Monitoring

  • Kristen N. Griggs
  • Olya Ossipova
  • Christopher P. Kohlios
  • Alessandro N. Baccarini
  • Emily A. Howson
  • Thaier HayajnehEmail author
Mobile & Wireless Health
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Mobile & Wireless Health


As Internet of Things (IoT) devices and other remote patient monitoring systems increase in popularity, security concerns about the transfer and logging of data transactions arise. In order to handle the protected health information (PHI) generated by these devices, we propose utilizing blockchain-based smart contracts to facilitate secure analysis and management of medical sensors. Using a private blockchain based on the Ethereum protocol, we created a system where the sensors communicate with a smart device that calls smart contracts and writes records of all events on the blockchain. This smart contract system would support real-time patient monitoring and medical interventions by sending notifications to patients and medical professionals, while also maintaining a secure record of who has initiated these activities. This would resolve many security vulnerabilities associated with remote patient monitoring and automate the delivery of notifications to all involved parties in a HIPAA compliant manner.


Blockchain IoT Healthcare Smart contracts Secure remote patient monitoring Ethereum PHI WBAN HIPAA 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

K. Griggs declares that she has no conflict of interest. O. Ossipova declares that she has no conflict of interest. C. Kohlios declares that he has no conflict of interest. A. Baccarini declares that he has no conflict of interest. E. Howson declares that she has no conflict of interest. T. Hayajneh declares that he has no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Almashaqbeh, G., Hayajneh, T., Vasilakos, A.V., and Mohd, B.J., Qos-aware health monitoring system using cloud-based wbans. J. Med. Syst. 38(10):121, 2014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Assistance, H.C.: Summary of the hipaa privacy rule, 2003Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolduc, M.: The future of medical wearables, 2017Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cachin, C.: Architecture of the hyperledger blockchain fabric. In: Workshop on distributed cryptocurrencies and consensus ledgers, 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castro, M., and Liskov, B., Practical byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. (TOCS) 20(4):398–461, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Daniel, J.G., and Uppaluru, M.: New reimbursement for remote patient monitoring and telemedicine., 2017
  8. 8.
    Dubovitskaya, A., Xu, Z., Ryu, S., Schumacher, M., and Wang, F.: Secure and trustable electronic medical records sharing using blockchain. arXiv:1709.06528, 2017
  9. 9.
    Ekblaw, A., Azaria, A., Halamka, J.D., and Lippman, A.: A case study for blockchain in healthcare:“medrec” prototype for electronic health records and medical research data. In: Proceedings of IEEE Open & Big Data Conference, Vol. 13, p. 13, 2016.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hayajneh, T., Mohd, B.J., Imran, M., Almashaqbeh, G., and Vasilakos, A.V., Secure authentication for remote patient monitoring with wireless medical sensor networks. Sensors 16(4):424, 2016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kohlios, C.P.: Healthcare_iot_blockchain, 2018Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mack, H.: Remote patient monitoring market grew by 44 percent in 2016, report says., 2017
  13. 13.
    Medicalchain: Medicalchain whitepaper 2.1. Tech. rep. Medicalchain, 2018Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakamoto, S.: Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system, 2008Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noah, B., Keller, M.S., Mosadeghi, S., Stein, L., Johl, S., Delshad, S., Tashjian, V.C., Lew, D., Kwan, J.T., Jusufagic, A., et al., Impact of remote patient monitoring on clinical outcomes: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. npj Digital Medicine 1(1):2, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Unleashed, I.B.: Blockchain is good for your health, and your business., 2017
  17. 17.
    Wu, L., Du, X., Wang, W., and Lin, B.: An out-of-band authentication scheme for internet of things using blockchain technology, 2017Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yue, X., Wang, H., Jin, D., Li, M., and Jiang, W., Healthcare data gateways: found healthcare intelligence on blockchain with novel privacy risk control. J. Med. Syst. 40(10):218, 2016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fordham Center for CybersecurityFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations