Journal of Medical Systems

, 39:117 | Cite as

Design of a Computer-Assisted System to Automatically Detect Cell Types Using ANA IIF Images for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases

  • Chung-Chuan Cheng
  • Chun-Feng Lu
  • Tsu-Yi Hsieh
  • Yaw-Jen Lin
  • Jin-Shiuh Taur
  • Yung-Fu Chen
Systems-Level Quality Improvement
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Smart Living in Healthcare and Innovations


Indirect immunofluorescence technique applied on HEp-2 cell substrates provides the major screening method to detect ANA patterns in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Currently, the ANA patterns are mostly inspected by experienced physicians to identify abnormal cell patterns. The objective of this study is to design a computer-assisted system to automatically detect cell patterns of IIF images for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in the clinical setting. The system simulates the functions of modern flow cytometer and provides the diagnostic reports generated by the system to the technicians and physicians through the radar graphs, box-plots, and tables. The experimental results show that, among the IIF images collected from 17 patients, 6 were classified as coarse-speckled, 3 as diffused, 2 as discrete-speckled, 1 as fine-speckled, 2 as nucleolar, and 3 as peripheral patterns, which were consistent with the patterns determined by the physicians. In addition to recognition of cell patterns, the system also provides the function to automatically generate the report for each patient. The time needed for the whole procedure is less than 30 min, which is more efficient than the manual operation of the physician after inspecting the ANA IIF images. Besides, the system can be easily deployed on many desktop and laptop computers. In conclusion, the designed system, containing functions for automatic detection of ANA cell pattern and generation of diagnostic report, is effective and efficient to assist physicians to diagnose patients with autoimmune diseases. The limitations of the current developed system include (1) only a unique cell pattern was considered for the IIF images collected from a patient, and (2) the cells during the process of mitosis were not adopted for cell classification.


ANA IIF image Image segmentation Image recognition Computer-assisted diagnosis 



This study was supported in part by Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under grant nos. NSC100-2410-H-166-007-MY3 and MOST103-2622-H-166-001.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chung-Chuan Cheng
    • 1
  • Chun-Feng Lu
    • 2
  • Tsu-Yi Hsieh
    • 3
  • Yaw-Jen Lin
    • 4
  • Jin-Shiuh Taur
    • 1
  • Yung-Fu Chen
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy TechnologyChung Chou University of Science and TechnologyChanghuaTaiwan
  3. 3.Division of Allergy, Immunology and RheumatologyTaichung Veterans General HospitalTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Departments of Management Information SystemCentral Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaichungTaiwan
  5. 5.Departments of Health Services AdministrationChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  6. 6.Department of Dental Technology and Materials ScienceCentral Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaichungRepublic of China

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