Journal of Medical Systems

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 317–325 | Cite as

Military Medical Graduates’ Perceptions of Organizational Culture in Turkish Military Medical School

  • Mustafa Ozer
  • Bilal Bakir
  • Abdulkadir Teke
  • Muharrem Ucar
  • Turker Bas
  • Adnan Atac
Original Paper


Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 ± 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind of studies contribute to improve organizational culture in order to increase educational and research capability.


Organizational culture Medical school Military physicians 


  1. 1.
    Boan, D., and Funderburk, F., Delmarva Foundation Healthcare Quality Improvement and Organizational Culture, November 2003, accessed on 31st March 2005 at
  2. 2.
    Hoy, W. K., Tarte, C. J., and Kottkamp, R. B., The nature of the workplace in Open Schools/Healthy Schools Measuring Organizational Climate. Sage Publications, Inc. (1991) first published this book. The book has been republished electronically by Arlington Writers, Ltd. (2000) (accessed on 12 April 2005,
  3. 3.
    Ouchi, W., Theory Z. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ott, J., The organizational culture perspective. Dorsey, Chicago, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schein, E., Organizational culture. Am. Psychol 45(2):109–119, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davies, H. T. O., Nutley, S. M., and Mannion, R., Organizational culture and quality of health care. Qual. Health Care 9:111–119, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scott, T., Mannion, R., Davies, H., and Marshall, M., The quantitative measurement of organizational culture in health care: a review of the available instruments. Health Serv. Res. 38:3923–945, 2003(accessed on 22 February 2005, Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shortell, S. M., Jones, R. H., Rademaker, A. W., Gillies, R. R., Dranove, D. S., Hughes, E. F. X., Budetti, P. P., Reynolds, K. S. E., and Huanf, C., Assessing the impact of total quality management and organizational culture on multiple outcomes of care for coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Med. Care 38(2):207–217, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shortell, S. M., Zazzali, J. L., Burns, L. R., Alexander, J. A., Gillies, R. P., Budetti, P. P., Waters, T. M., and Zuckerman, H. S., Implementing evidence-based medicine: the role of market pressures, compensation incentives, and culture in physician organizations. Med. Care 39:7, Supplement:I62–I78, 2001.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gershon, R. R. M., Stone, P. W., Bakken, S., and Larson, E., Measurement of organizational culture and climate in healthcare. J. Nurs. Adm. 34:(1)33–40, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mallak, L. A., Lyth, D. M., Olson, S. D., Ulshafer, S. M., and Sardone, F. J., Diagnosing culture in healthcare organizations using critical incidents. Int. J. Health Care Qual. Assur. 16/4:180–190, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erdem, F., and Işbaşı, J. O., Organizational culture in educational institutions and the perceptions of student subculture. Akdeniz University İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi 1:33–57, 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gulec, M., Bakir, B., Ozer, M., Ucar, M., Kilic, S., and Hasde, M., Association between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms among military medical students in Turkey. Psychiatry Res. 134(3):281–286, 2005. Epub 2005 Apr 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bakir, B., Yilmaz, U. R., and Yavas, I., Relating depressive symptoms to Machiavellianism in a Turkish sample. Psychol. Rep. 78:1011–1014, 1996.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Acikel, C. H., and Kilic, S., Tıbbi araştırmalarda istatiksel yöntem seçimi [Selection of statistical methods in medical researches]. Korhek 3(7):162–163, 2004( Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., and Sullivan, J. J., Making sense of factor analysis; the use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. London, Sage Publications, p. 79, 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rafaeli, A., and Worline, M., Symbols in organizational culture. Chapter submitted for the Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate February 25, 1999. Access date 20 January 2008 at
  18. 18.
    Bakir, B., Bir tıp fakültesi öğrencilerinin mezuniyet sonrası beklentileri. Toplum ve Hekim 9:63–67, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Ozer
    • 1
  • Bilal Bakir
    • 2
  • Abdulkadir Teke
    • 3
  • Muharrem Ucar
    • 4
  • Turker Bas
    • 5
  • Adnan Atac
    • 4
  1. 1.Military Health ServicesAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Public HealthGulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA)AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Health Services ManagementAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Medical History and EthicsAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Management, Turkish General Staff, Ankara Turkey 06100Medical History and Ethics, Turkish General Staff, Anakara Turkey 06100AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations