Advertisement

New Early Miocene Material of Iberictis, the Oldest Member of the Wolverine Lineage (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Guloninae)

  • Alberto ValencianoEmail author
  • Juan Abella
  • David M. Alba
  • Josep M. Robles
  • María A. Álvarez-Sierra
  • Jorge Morales
Original Paper

Abstract

We describe new dental remains of the genus Iberictis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from the late early Miocene of the Iberian Peninsula. The new fossils of Iberictis azanzae from Artesilla (16.5–16.3 Ma, MN4; Calatayud-Teruel Basin, Zaragoza, Spain) add important morphological information about this species. Material from another species, Iberictis buloti, is described from els Casots (16.5–16.3 Ma, MN4; Vallès-Penedès Basin, Barcelona, Spain). This material constitutes the most complete sample of Iberictis and the first record of I. buloti in the Iberian Peninsula. Our analyses confirm the taxonomic validity of both species, and confirm the more plesiomorphic status of I. buloti compared to I. azanzae. Re-examination of large mustelid Miocene genera (Dehmictis, Ekorus, Eomellivora, Hoplictis, Iberictis, Ischyrictis, and Plesiogulo) and their inclusion for the first time in a cladistic analysis indicate that Iberictis is the sister taxon of Plesiogulo, and that these genera constitute the sister group of the extant wolverine (Gulo gulo). Our analysis thus confirms a close relationship between the early Miocene Iberictis, the late Miocene Plesiogulo, and the Plio-Pleistocene Gulo. Iberictis is the oldest member of Gulonini, the total clade of wolverines, thereby tracking the fossil record of this clade back to the early Miocene. We further propose a new systematic arrangement for the aforementioned large Miocene mustelids into the subfamilies Guloninae, Mellivorinae, and Mustelinae.

Keywords

Mustelidae Neogene Gulo Wolverine Plesiogulo Iberictis Guloninae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the following curators and collection managers for access to comparative material under their care: E. Westwig and J. Galkin (AMNH), D. Kalthoff (NRM), A. Prieur (FSL), C. Argot (MNHN), J.O.R. Ebbestad and V. Berg-Madsen (PMU), D. Lunde (USNM), U.B. Göhlich (NHMW), J.I. Canudo (MPZ), and E. López Errasquin and S. Fraile (MNCN). We are grateful to L. Werdelin (NRM) for kindly allowing us to study the cast of the skull and mandibles of Ekorus ekakeran. We further thank M. March and J. Galindo for assistance with the ICP collections; G. Rössner (BSPG) for the pictures of Plesiogulo sp. from Paşalar (Turkey); S. Mayda (Ege University, Turkey) for the pictures of Paralutra jaegeri from Ravensburg and Steinheim (Germany), Ischyrictis mustelinus from La Grive-Saint-Alban (France) and Erkertshofen 2 (Germany), and Dehmictis vorax from Wintershof-West (Germany); B. Azanza (Universidad de Zaragoza) for the pictures of old material of I. azanzae; J.I. Canudo (MPZ) for cataloguing the new material of I. azanzae; S. Peigné (MNHN) and the photographer Philippe Loubry (UMR7207, MNHN) for the pictures of I. buloti from Pellecahus (France); S. Govender and R. Govender (SAM) for the pictures of Plesiogulo monspessulanus from Langebaanweg; and L. Costeur (NMB) for the pictures of Hoplictis noueli from Artenay (France). We also are grateful to M. Sotnikova (Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) for her help concerning Gulo minor, and to M. Pina (ICP) for assistance with the pictures of I. buloti from els Casots. A.V. was researcher in formation in the CSIC program JAE-PRE_CP2011 (CSIC program “Junta para la ampliación de estudios”), co-funded by the European Social Fund. This research received support by A.V. from the SYNTHESYS3 Project http://www.synthesys.info/ (SYNTHESYS; AT-TAF-5457), which is financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Programme, and the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 226506 (SYNTHESYS; SE-TAF-3637). A.V. also received support by an American Museum of Natural History Collection Study Grant Program 2014. The support of the DST-NFR Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences (CoE-Pal) toward this research for A. V. (COE2018-09POST) is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at, are those of the author and are not necessarily to be attributed to the CoE. This study was also supported by CGL2015-68333-P (MINECO/FEDER-UE), Agencia Estatal de Investigación–European Regional Development Fund of the European Union (CGL2016-76431-P, AEI/FEDER, EU), the Generalitat de Catalunya (CERCA Programme), and the research group UCM 910607. We are also indebted to the Editor-in-Chief J.R. Wible, and both J. Baskin and one anonymous reviewer for their useful comments and suggestions, which significantly improved the original manuscript.We want to express our deepest gratitude to the late Stéphane Peigné (MNHN), a colleague, friend and a recognized world expert in Neogene carnivorans, who passed away during the development of this project.

Supplementary material

10914_2018_9445_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
ESM 1 Descriptions of dental characters used in the phylogenetic analysis performed in this work. (DOCX 58 kb)
10914_2018_9445_Fig11_ESM.png (388 kb)
ESM 2

Character-taxon matrix used in the phylogenetic analysis performed in this work. (PNG 388 kb)

10914_2018_9445_MOESM2_ESM.tif (29 mb)
High Resolution (TIF 29 mb)
10914_2018_9445_MOESM3_ESM.nex (7 kb)
ESM 3 Character-taxon matrix in nexus format. (NEX 6.78 kb)

References

  1. Agustí J, Llenas M (1993) Los roedores del Mioceno inferior de Els Casots (Vallés-Penedés). Nota preliminar. In: González Donoso JM (ed) Comunicaciones de las IX Jornadas de Paleontología. Málaga, pp 70–72Google Scholar
  2. Alba DM, DeMiguel D, Morales J, Sánchez IM, Moyà-Solà S (2014) New remains of Dorcatherium crassum (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) from the early Miocene (MN4) of els Casots (Subirats, Vallès-Penedès Basin). C R Palevol 13:73–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2013.09.003
  3. Albright LB III, Woodburne MO, Fremd TJ, Swisher CC III, MacFadden BJ, Scott GR (2008) Revised chronostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the John Day Formation (Turtle Cove and Kimberly members), Oregon, with implications for updated calibration of the Arikareean north American land mammal age. J Geol 116:211–237.  https://doi.org/10.1086/587650
  4. Alcalá L, Montoya P, Morales J (1994) New large mustelids from the late Miocene of Teruel Basin (Spain). C R Acad Sci Paris 319:1093–1100Google Scholar
  5. Aldana Carrasco EJ (1991) Roedores esciuromorfos del Neógeno de Cataluña. PhD Dissertation, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  6. Aldana Carrasco EJ (1992) Los Sciurinae (Rodentia, Mammalia) del Mioceno de la cuenca del Vallès- Penedès (Cataluña, España). Treb Mus Geol Barcelona 2:69–97Google Scholar
  7. Anderson E (1970) Quaternary evolution of the genus Martes (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Acta Zool Fenn 130:1–132Google Scholar
  8. Azanza B, Cerdeño E, Ginsburg L, Van der Made J, Morales J, Tassy P (1993) Les grands mammifères du Miocène inférieur d’Artesilla, bassin de Calatayud-Teruel (province de Saragosse, Espagne). Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat 15:105–153Google Scholar
  9. Baskin JA (1998) Mustelidae. In: Janis CM, Scott KM, Jacobs LL (eds) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America, Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulate-like Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 152173Google Scholar
  10. Blainville H (1842) Ostéographie ou déscription iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des cinq classes d’animaux vertebras récents et fossils pour servir de base à la zoologie et à la géologie. Mammiferes Carnassiers: Des Mustelas (G Mustela). JB Baillière, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonifay MF (1971) Carnivores quaternaries du sud-est de la France. Mem Mus Nat Hist 21:1–337Google Scholar
  12. Bowdich TE (1821) An Analysis of the Natural Classifications of Mammalia, for the Use of Students and Travellers. J Smith, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryant HN, Russell AP, Fitch WD (1993) Phylogenetic relationships within the extant Mustelidae (Carnivora): appraisal of the cladistic status of the Simpsonian subfamilies. Zool J Linn Soc 108:301–334.  https://doi.org/10.1006/zjls.1993.1028
  14. Cabrera L, Roca, E, Garcés M, de Porta J (2004) Estratigrafía y evolución tectonosedimentaria oligocena superior-neógena del sector central del margen catalán (Cadena Costero-Catalana). In: Vera, JA (ed) Geología de España. Sociedad Geológica de España / Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, pp 569–573Google Scholar
  15. Casanovas-Vilar I, Alba DM, Moyà-Solà S (2011a) Parada 1. Panorámica general de la cuenca y yacimiento de Els Casots (Subirats): una fauna de vertebrados del Aragoniense inferior. Paleontol Evol mem espec 6:81–88Google Scholar
  16. Casanovas-Vilar, I, Alba, DM, Robles JM, Moyà-Solà S (2011b) Registro paleontológico continental del Mioceno de la cuenca del Vallès-Penedès. Paleontol Evol mem espec 6:55–80Google Scholar
  17. Casanovas-Vilar I, DeMiguel D, Galindo J, Robles JM, Garcés M, Cabrera L (2011c) The continental Burdigalian (early Miocene) of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, Spain). In: Pérez-García A, Gascó F, Gasulla JM, Escaso F (eds) Viajando a mundos pretéritos. Ayuntamiento de Morella, Morella, pp 93–100Google Scholar
  18. Casanovas-Vilar I, Madern A, Alba DM, Cabrera L, García-Paredes I, van den Hoek Ostende L, DeMiguel D, Robles JM, Furió M, van Dam J, Garcés M, Angelone C, Moyà-Solà S (2016) The Miocene mammal record of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia). C R Palevol 15:791–812Google Scholar
  19. Crusafont M, Truyols J (1954) Catálogo paleomastológico del Mioceno del Vallés-Penedés y de Calatayud-Teruel. Segundo Cursillo Internacional de Paleontología. Sabadell, Museo de la Ciudad de SabadellGoogle Scholar
  20. de Gibert JM, Casanovas-Vilar I (2011) Contexto geológico del Mioceno de la cuenca del Vallès-Penedès. Paleontol Evol mem espec 6:39–45Google Scholar
  21. Dehm R (1950) Die Raubtiere aus dem Mittel-Miocän (Burdigalium) von Wintershof-West bei Eichstätt in Bayern. Abh Bayer Akad Wiss math-naturwiss KI NF 58:1–141Google Scholar
  22. Díez Aráez JL, Delfino M, Luján ÀH, Fortuny J, Bernardini F, Alba DM (2016) New remains of Diplocynodon (Crocodylia: Diplocynodontidae) from the early Miocene of the Iberian peninsula. C R Palevol 16:12–26Google Scholar
  23. Duranthon F, Moyà-Solà S, Astibia H, Köhler M (1995) Ampelomeryx ginsburgi nov. gen., nov. sp. (Artiodactyla, Cervoidea) et la famille des Palaeomerycidae. CR Acad Sci II A 321:339–346Google Scholar
  24. Erxleben JCP (1777) Systema Regni Amimalis, per Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates, Cum Synonymia et Historia Animalium. Classis I, Mammalia.Weygand, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraas O (1862) Die tertiären Hirsche von Steinheim. Württ Nat Jahresh 18:113–131Google Scholar
  26. Fischer G (1817) Adversaria zoologica. Mém Soc Imp Naturalistes Moscou 5:368–428Google Scholar
  27. Ginestí M (2008) Els cricètids del Miocè inferior dels Casots (Subirats, Barcelona). Master thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona/Universitat de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  28. Ginsburg L (1961) La faune des carnivores miocènes de Sansan (Gers). Mem Mus Nat Hist, NS C 9:1–190Google Scholar
  29. Ginsburg L (1977) Les carnivores du Miocène de Beni Mellal. Geol Medit 4:225–240Google Scholar
  30. Ginsburg L (1999) Order Carnivora. In: Rössner GE, Heissig K (eds) The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp 109–148Google Scholar
  31. Ginsburg L, Invagat R, Tassy P (1983) Siamogale thailandica, nouveau Mustelidae (Carnivora, Mammalia) néogène du Sud-Est asiatique. Bull Soc Geol Fr 7:953–956Google Scholar
  32. Ginsburg L Morales J (1992) Contribution à la connaissance des Mustélidés (Carnivora, Mammalia) du Miocène d’Europe Trochictis et Ischyrictis, genres affines et genres nouveaux. CR Acad Sci II 315:111–116Google Scholar
  33. Ginsburg L, Morales J (1996) Lartetictis et Adroverictis, nouveaux genres de Melinae (Mustelidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) du Miocène de l’Ancien Monde. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat 18: 663–671Google Scholar
  34. Ginsburg L, Morales J (2000) Origine et évolution des Melinae (Mustelidae, Carnivora, Mammalia). CR Acad Sci II 330:221–225Google Scholar
  35. Gray JE (1825) An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia into tribes and families, with a list of the genera apparently appertaining to each tribe. Ann Philos 10:337–344Google Scholar
  36. Gray JE (1865) Revision of the genera and species of Mustelidae contained in the British Museum. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1865:100–154Google Scholar
  37. Grohé C, Chaimanee Y, Bonis L de, Yamee C, Blondel C, Jaeger JJ (2010) New data on Mustelidae (Carnivora) from Southeast Asia: Siamogale thailandica, a peculiar otter-like mustelid from the late middle Miocene Mae Moh Basin, northern Thailand. Naturwissenschaften 97:1003–1015Google Scholar
  38. Haile-Selassie Y, Hlusko LJ, Howell FC (2004) A new species of Plesiogulo (Mustelidae: Carnivora) from the late Miocene of Africa. Palaeontol Afr 40:85–88Google Scholar
  39. Harrison JA (1981) A review of the extinct wolverine, Plesiogulo (Carnivora: Mustelidae), from North America. Smithsonian Contrib Paleobiol 46:1–27Google Scholar
  40. Helbing H (1928) Carnivoren aus dem Miocän von Ravensburg und Georgensgmünd. Eclogae Geol Helv 21:377–385Google Scholar
  41. Helbing H (1930) Zur Kenntnis der miocänen, “Mustelazibethoides Blainville. Eclogae Geol Helv 23:637–644Google Scholar
  42. Helbing H (1936) Die Carnivoren des Steinheimer Beckens. A. Mustelidae. Palaeontographica Suppl 8:1–56Google Scholar
  43. Hendey QB (1978) Late Tertiary Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Langebaanweg, South Africa. Ann S Afr Mus 76:329–357Google Scholar
  44. Hilgen FJ, Lourens LJ, Van Dam JA (2012) The Neogene period. In: Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Schmitz MD, Ogg GM (eds) The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 923978Google Scholar
  45. Jovells-Vaqué S, Ginestí M, Casanovas-Vilar I (2017) Cricetidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the early Miocene site of els Casots (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia). Fossil Imprint 73:141–154Google Scholar
  46. Koepfli KP, Deere KA, Slater GJ, Begg C, Begg K, Grassman, L, Lucherini M, Veron G, Wayne RK (2008) Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation. BMC Biol 6:10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-6-10
  47. Kormos T (1914) Drei neue Raubtiere aus den Präglazialschichten des Somlyohegy bei Püspökfürdö. Mitt Jahrb Ung Geol Reichsanst 22:223–247Google Scholar
  48. Kretzoi M (1943) Kochitis centenii n.g. n. sp., ein altertumlicher Creodonte aus dem Oberoligozan Siebenburgens. Földtani Közlöny 52:10–195Google Scholar
  49. Kurtén B (1970) The Neogene wolverine Plesiogulo and the origin of Gulo (Carnivora, Mammalia). Acta Zool Fenn 131:1–22Google Scholar
  50. Kurtén B, Anderson E (1980) Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Larivière S, Jennings AP (2009) Family Mustelidae (weasels and relatives). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA (eds) Handbook of Mammals of the World. 1. Carnivores. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, pp 564–656Google Scholar
  52. Li B, Wolsan M, Wu D, Zhang W, Xu Y, Zeng Z (2014) Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification. Mol Phylogenet Evol 80:156–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.002
  53. Lichtenstein H (1830) Erläuterungen der Nachrichten des Fran. Hernandez von den vierfüssigen Thieren Neuspaniens. Abh Akad Wiss Got, Berlin, pp 89–128Google Scholar
  54. Linnaeus C (1758) Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secumdum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tenth ed. Laurentii Salvii, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  55. Malyarchuk BA, Derenko MV, Denisova GA (2015) Mitochondrial genome variability in the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Russ J Genet 51:1113–1118Google Scholar
  56. Martin HT (1928) Two new carnivores from the Pliocene of Kansas. J Mammal 9:233–236.Google Scholar
  57. Mayet L (1908) Études de Mammifères miocènes des sables de l’Orléanais et des faluns de la Touraine. Ann Univ Lyon 24:1–336Google Scholar
  58. McKenna MC, Bell SK (1997) Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Montoya P, Morales J, Abella J (2011) Musteloidea (Carnivora, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Venta del Moro (Valencia, Spain). Estud Geol 67:193–206.  https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40576.183
  60. Morales J, Peláez-Campomanes P, Abella J, Montoya P, Ruiz FJ, Gibert L, Scott G, Cantalapiedra JL, Sanisidro O (2013) The Ventian mammal age (latest Miocene): present state. Spanish J Palaeontol 28:149–160Google Scholar
  61. Morales J, Pickford M, Soria D (2005) Carnivores of the late Miocene and basal Pliocene of the Tugen Hills, Kenya. Rev Soc Geol Esp 18:39–61Google Scholar
  62. Morales J, Pickford M, Valenciano A (2016) Systematics of African Amphicyonidae, with descriptions of new material from Napak (Uganda) and Grillental (Namibia). J Iber Geol 42:131–150.  https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_JIGE.2016.v42.n2.51960
  63. Moyà-Solà S, Rius Font L (1993) El jaciment paleontològic dels Casots (Subirats, alt Penedès). Trib Arqueol 1991:7–12Google Scholar
  64. Orliac MJ (2006) Eurolistriodon tenarezensis, sp. nov., from Montreal-du-Gers (France): implications for the systematics of the European Listriodontinae (Suidae, Mammalia). J Vertebr Paleontol 26:967–980. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26[967:ETSNFM]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  65. Ozansoy F (1965) Étude des hisements continentaux et des mammifères du Cénozoïque de turquie. Mem Soc Geol F44:1–92Google Scholar
  66. Pallas PS (1780) Spicilegia zoologica quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Fasciculus XIV. Pauili, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  67. Peigné S (2012) Les Carnivora de Sansan. In: Peigné S, Sen S (eds) Mammifères de Sansan. Mem Mus Natl Hist Nat 203, Publications du Muséum, Paris, pp 559–660Google Scholar
  68. Petter G (1963) Contribution a l’étude des Mustélidés des bassins néogènes du Vallès-Penedès et de Calatayud-Teruel (Espagne orientale). Mem Soc Geol F 97:6–44Google Scholar
  69. Pia J (1939) Ein riesiger Honingsdachs (Mellivorine) aus dem Unterpliozän von Wien. Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 50:537–583Google Scholar
  70. Pickford M, Moyà-Solà S (1994) Taucanamo (Suoidea, Tayassuidae) from the middle Miocene (MN04a) of Els Casots, Barcelona, Spain. C R Acad Sci Paris 319:1569–1575Google Scholar
  71. Pickford M, Moyà-Solà S (1995) Eurolistriodon gen. nov., (Suoidea, Mammalia) from Els Casots, early middle Miocene, Spain. Proc Konink Nederl Akad Wetensch 98:343–360Google Scholar
  72. Pinel P (1792) Recherches sur une nouvelle méthode de classification des quadrupèdes, fondée sur la structure mécanique des parties osseuses qui servent à l’articulation de la mâchoire inférieure. Actes Soc Hist Nat Paris 1:50–60Google Scholar
  73. Roman F, Viret J (1934) La faune de mammifères du Burdigalien de La Romieu. Mem Soc Géo F 21:1–67Google Scholar
  74. Roth CH (1989) Die Raubtierfauna (Carnivora, Mammalia) der untermiozänen Spaltenfüllung von Erkertshofen 2 bei Eichstätt/Bayern. Mitt Bayer Staatssaml Paläontol hist Geol 29:163–205Google Scholar
  75. Samuels JX, Bredehoeft KE, Wallace SC (2018) A new species of Gulo from the early Pliocene Gray fossil site (eastern United States); rethinking the evolution of wolverines. PeerJ 6 p.e4648Google Scholar
  76. Samuels JX, Cavin J (2013) The earliest known fisher (Mustelidae), a new species from the Rattlesnake Formation of Oregon. J Vertebr Paleontol 33:448–454.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2013.722155
  77. Sato JJ, Wolsan M, Minami S, Hosoda T, Sinaga MH, Hiyama K, Yamaguchi Y, Suzuki H (2009) Deciphering and dating the red panda’s ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea. Mol Phylogenet Evol 53:907–922.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.019
  78. Sato JJ, Wolsan M, Prevosti FJ, D’Elía G, Begg C, Begg K, Hosoda T, Campbell KL, Suzuki H (2012) Evolutionary and biogeographic history of weasel-like carnivorans (Musteloidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol 63:745–757.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.025.
  79. Schreber JCD (1776) Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Wolfgang Walther, ErlangenGoogle Scholar
  80. Schmidt-Kittler N (1976) Raubtiere aus dem Jungtertiär Kleinasiens. Palaeontographica Abt A 155:1–131Google Scholar
  81. Sher AV, Weinstock J, Baryshnikov GF, Davydov SP, Boeskorov GG, Zazhigin VS, Nikolskiy PA (2011) The first record of “spalaeoid” bears in arctic Siberia. Quaternary Sci Rev 30:2238–2249Google Scholar
  82. Sillero-Zubiri C (2009) Family Canidae (dogs). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA (eds) Handbook of Mammals of the World. 1. Carnivores. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, pp 352–446Google Scholar
  83. Smith CH (1842) Introduction to the Mammalia. The Naturalist’s Library 13:1–299Google Scholar
  84. Smith JB, Dodson P (2003) A proposal for a standard terminology of anatomical notation and orientation in fossil vertebrate dentitions. J Vertebr Paleontol 23:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2003)23[1:APFAST]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  85. Sotnikova MV (1982) The history of the genus Gulo in Eurasia. Proc Zool Inst Akad Nauk USSR 3:65–73Google Scholar
  86. Sotnikova MV (1995) Extinct wolverine from the former USSR: Review of the genus Plesiogulo (Carnivora: Mustelidae). Lutreola 6:1–8Google Scholar
  87. Sotnikova MV (2008) A new species of lesser panda Parailurus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Pliocene of Transbaikalia (Russia) and some aspects of ailurine phylogeny. Paleontol J 42:90–99Google Scholar
  88. Sotnikova MV (2010) New data on the evolution of the genus Gulo in Siberia (Russia). Quaternaire Hors-Série 3:198–199Google Scholar
  89. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  90. Tedford RH, Albright LB III, Barnosky AD, Ferrusquia-Villafranca I, Hunt RM Jr, Storer JE, Swisher CC III, Voorhies MR., Webb SD, Whistler DP (2004) Mammalian biochronology of the Arikareen through Hemphillian interval (late Oligocene through early Pliocene epochs). In: Woodburne MO (ed) Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 169–231Google Scholar
  91. Teilhard de Chardin P (1945) Les Mustélidés de Chine. Publ Inst Geobiol 12:1–56Google Scholar
  92. Tobien H (1955) Neue und wenig bekannte Carnivoren aus den unterpliozänen Dinotheriensanden Rheinhessens. Notizbl Hess L Amt Bodenforsh 83:7–31Google Scholar
  93. Valenciano A, Abella J, Göhlich U, Álvarez-Sierra MA, Morales, J (2017). Re-evaluation of the very large Eomellivora fricki (pia, 1939) (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Mellivorinae) from the late Miocene of Austria. Palaeontol Electron 20:17AGoogle Scholar
  94. Valenciano A, Abella J, Sanisidro O, Hartstone-Rose A, Álvarez-Sierra MA, Morales, J (2015) Complete description of the skull and mandible of the giant mustelid Eomellivora piveteaui Ozansoy, 1965 (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Batallones (MN10), late Miocene (Madrid, Spain). J Vertebr Paleontol 35:e934570.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2014.934570
  95. Valenciano A, Baskin JA, Abella J, Pérez˗Ramos, A, Álvarez˗Sierra MA, Morales J, Hartstone˗Rose A (2016a) Megalictis, the bone˗crushing giant mustelid (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Oligobuninae) from the lower Miocene of North America. PLoS One 11:e0152430.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152430
  96. Valenciano A, Leischner CL, Grant A, Abella J, Hartstone-Rose A (2016b) Preliminary bite force estimations of Miocene giant mustelids (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Anat Rec Special Feature 299:176Google Scholar
  97. Van der Made J (1997) Systematics and stratigraphy of the genera Taucanamo and Schizochoerus and a classification of the Palaeochoeridae (Suoidea, Mammalia). Proc Konink Ned Akad Wetensch 100:127–139Google Scholar
  98. Villalta Comella JF de, Crusafont Pairó M (1943) Los vertebrados del Mioceno continental de la cuenca del Vallés-Panadés (provincia de Barcelona). I. Insectívoros. II. Carnívoros. Bol Inst Geol Min Esp 56:145–336Google Scholar
  99. Viret J (1933) Contribution a l’étude des carnassiers miocènes de la Grive-Saint-Alban (Isère). Trav Lab Geol Fac Sci Lyon 21:1–31Google Scholar
  100. Viret J (1939) Monographie Paléontologique de la Faune de Vertebrés des Sables de Montpellier. III. Carnivora Fissipedia. Trav Lab Geol Fac Sci Lyon 37:7–26Google Scholar
  101. Wang X, Grohé C, Su DF, White SC, JI X, Kelley J, Jablonski NG, Deng T, You Y, Yang X (2017) A new otter of giant size, Siamogale melilutra sp. nov. (Lutrinae: Mustelidae: Carnivora), from the latest Miocene Shuitangba site in north-eastern Yunnan, south-western China, and a total-evidence phylogeny of lutrines. J Syst Palaeontol.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2016.1267666
  102. Webb SD (1969) The Burge and Minnechaduza Clarendoian mammalian faunas of north-centra1 Nebraska. Calif Univ Publ Geol Sci 78:1–191Google Scholar
  103. Werdelin L (2003) Mio-Pliocene Carnivora from Lothagam, Kenya. In: Leakey MG, Harris JM (eds) Lothagam, the Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 261–328Google Scholar
  104. Werdelin L, Peigné S (2010) Carnivora. In: Werdelin L, Sanders WJ (Eds) Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 609663.Google Scholar
  105. Wesley-Hunt GD, Werdelin L (2005) Basicranial morphology and phylogenetic position of the upper Eocene carnivoramorphan Quercygale. Acta Palaeontol Pol 50:837–846Google Scholar
  106. Wolsan M (1993) Phylogeny and classification of early European Mustelida (Mammalia: Carnivora). Acta Theriol 38:345–384Google Scholar
  107. Wolsan M, Sotnikova M (2013) Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Pliocene stem meline badger Ferinestrix (Carnivora: Mustelidae). Zool J Linn Soc 167:208–226.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00868.x
  108. Xiaofeng X, Haipo W (1987) Fossil Gulo in China. Vertebrat PalAsiatic 25:306-314 [In Chinese with summary in English.]Google Scholar
  109. Zdansky O (1924) Jungtertiäre Carnivoren Chinas. Palaeontol Sin 2:1–155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication August/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Geología Sedimentaria y Cambio MedioambientalInstituto de Geociencias (CSIC, UCM)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Geodinámica, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas UCMEstratigrafía y Paleontología Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Research and Exhibitions Department, Iziko Museums of South AfricaCape TownSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Biological Sciences, Palaeobiological Research GroupUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  5. 5.Facultad Ciencias del Mar, Edificio Instituto de Investigacion Científica y Desarrollo Tecnológicon (INCYT), Segundo PisoUniversidad Estatal Península de Santa ElenaLa LibertadEcuador
  6. 6.Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Edifici ICTA-ICP, c/ Columnes s/n, Campus de la UABUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Departamento de PaleobiologíaMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSICMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations