Bat Systematics in the Light of Unconstrained Analyses of a Comprehensive Molecular Supermatrix

  • Lucila I. Amador
  • R. Leticia Moyers Arévalo
  • Francisca C. Almeida
  • Santiago A. Catalano
  • Norberto P. Giannini
Original Paper

Abstract

Bats (Chiroptera) represent the largest diversification of extant mammals after rodents. Here we report the results of a large-scale phylogeny of bats based on unconstrained searches for a data matrix of 804 non-chimeric, taxonomically updated bat terminals (796 species represented by a single terminal plus three species represented by ≥2 genetically distinct subspecies), able to preliminary test the systematics of most groups simultaneously. We used nine nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence markers fragmentary represented for ingroups (c. 90% and 64% of extant diversity at genus and species level, respectively) and 20 diverse placental outgroups. Maximum Likelihood and Parsimony analyses applied to the concatenated dataset yielded a highly resolved, variously supported phylogeny that recovered the majority of currently recognized clades at all levels of the chiropteran tree. Calibration points based on 44 key fossils allowed the Bayesian dating of bat origins at c. 4 my after the K-Pg boundary, and the determination of stem and crown ages of intraordinal clades. As expected, bats appeared nested in Laurasiatheria and split into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. More remarkable, all polytypic, currently recognized families were monophyletic, including Miniopteridae, Cistugidae, and Rhinonycteridae, as well as most polytypic genera with few expected exceptions (e.g., Hipposideros). The controversial Myzopodidae appeared in a novel position as sister of Emballonuroidea―a result with interesting biogeographic implications. Most recently recognized subfamilies, genera, and species groups were supported or only minor adjustments to the current taxonomy would be required, except Molossidae, which should be revised thoroughly. In light of our analysis, current bat systematics is strongly supported at all levels; the emergent perception of a strong biogeographic imprint on many recovered bat clades is emphasized.

Keywords

Chiroptera Phylogeny Molecular dating Maximum likelihood Parsimony 

Supplementary material

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Table S2(DOCX 235 kb)
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Fig S1.

Pteropodidae. A: Cynopterinae; B: Cynopterini; C: Balionycterini; D: Scotonycterini; E: Rousettinae; F: Eonycterini; G: Rousettini; H: Stenonycterini; I: Myonycterini; J: Epomophorini; K: Macroglossinae; L: Harpyionycterinae; M: Eidolinae; N: Nyctimeninae; O: Pteropodinae (JPEG 3447 kb)

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Rhinolophoidea. A: African Hipposideros species; B: Asian Hipposideros species; C: Afro-Paleartic Rhinolophus clade; D: Indomalayan Rhinolophus clade (JPEG 3767 kb)

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Fig S3.

Yangochiroptera. A: Asian Nycteris clade; B: African Nycteris clade; C: Taphozoinae; D: Emballonurinae; E: Emballonurini; F: Diclidurini; G: Afro-Malagasy emballonurini genera; H: Indo-Pacific emballonurini genus; I: Chaerephon/Mops group; J: Otomops group; K: New World Molossidae group; L: Oriental-Australasian Miniopterus clade; M: Ethiopian Miniopterus clade; N: Indian Ocean Miniopterus clade (JPEG 4114 kb)

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Relationships within Phyllostomidae. The subfamilies are indicated in bold (JPEG 4357 kb)

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Fig S5.

Relationships within Vespertilionidae (part 1: Kerivoulinae, Murininae, Myotinae). A: New World Myotis clade; B: Paleartic lineage “brandtii”; C: Neartic clade; D: Neotropical clade; E: Old World Myotis clade; F: Ethiopian clade; G: Euroasian clade (JPEG 3654 kb)

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Relationships within Vespertilionidae (part 2: Vespertilioninae). The tribes are indicated in bold (JPEG 3972 kb)

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Fig S7.

Pteropodidae. A: Cynopterinae; B: Cynopterini; C: Balionycterini; D: Scotonycterini; E: Rousettinae; F: Eonycterini; G: Rousettini; H: Stenonycterini; I: Myonycterini; J: Epomophorini; K: Macroglossinae; L: Harpyionycterinae; M: Eidolinae; N: Nyctimeninae; O: “Pteropodinae” (JPEG 3509 kb)

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Fig S8.

Rhinolophoidea. A: African Hipposideros species; B: Asian Hipposideros species; C: Afro-Paleartic Rhinolophus clade (JPEG 3578 kb)

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Fig S9.

Yangochiroptera. A: Asian Nycteris clade; B: African Nycteris clade; C: Taphozoinae; D: Emballonurinae; E: Emballonurini; F: Diclidurini; G: Afro-Malagasy emballonurini genera; H: Indo-Pacific emballonurini genus; I: New World Molossidae group; J: Otomops group; K: Oriental-Australasian Miniopterus clade; L: Ethiopian Miniopterus clade; M: Indian Ocean Miniopterus clade (JPEG 3901 kb)

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Relationships within Phyllostomidae. The subfamilies are indicated in bold (JPEG 3877 kb)

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Fig S11.

Relationships within Vespertilionidae (part 1: Kerivoulinae, Murininae, Myotinae). A: New World Myotis clade; B: Paleartic lineage “brandtii”; C: Neartic clade; D: Neotropical clade; E: Old World Myotis clade; F: Ethiopian clade; G: Euroasian clade; H: Oriental clade (JPEG 3563 kb)

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Relationships within Vespertilionidae (part 2: Vespertilioninae). The tribes are indicated in bold (JPEG 4337 kb)

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Outgroups (JPEG 608 kb)

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Yinpterochiroptera (JPEG 2716 kb)

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Yangochiroptera (in part): Noctilionoidea + Emballonuroidea (JPEG 2677 kb)

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Yangochiroptera (in part): Vespertilionoidea (JPEG 3078 kb)

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Fig S17.Complete molecular dating obtained from a Bayesian analysis (PDF 72 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucila I. Amador
    • 1
  • R. Leticia Moyers Arévalo
    • 1
  • Francisca C. Almeida
    • 2
  • Santiago A. Catalano
    • 1
    • 3
  • Norberto P. Giannini
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Unidad Ejecutora Lillo (UEL: FML-CONICET)TucumánArgentina
  2. 2.Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires (IEGEBA: UBA-CONICET)Instituto de EcologíaBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel LilloUniversidad Nacional de Tucumán (UNT)TucumánArgentina
  4. 4.American Museum of Natural History (AMNH)Division of Vertebrate Zoology, Department of MammalogyNYUSA

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