Journal of Mammalian Evolution

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 235–248 | Cite as

First Amphilestid from South America: A Molariform from the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

  • Leandro C. Gaetano
  • Guillermo W. RougierEmail author
Original Paper


We report here the first amphilestid triconodont from the Jurassic of South America. The specimen, a single isolated molariform, was found at the Queso Rallado locality from where a growing mammalian fauna is known (including a triconodontid, two australosphenidans, and an as yet undescribed allotherian). The specimen, interpreted as a left lower tooth, presents five mesiodistally aligned, fairly symmetrical cusps, and is recognized as the type of a new taxon, Condorodon spanios. The phylogenetic analysis recovers Condorodon as a member of the clade Amphilestheria, closely related to Tendagurodon janenschi, an amphilestid triconodont from the Late Jurassic of Tanzania. Condorodon spanios is only distantly related to Argentoconodon fariasorum, the other triconodont known from Queso Rallado quarry. The phylogenetic position of Condorodon spanios points to the origin and diversification of amphilestherians during the Early Jurassic in a paleogeographical setting that allowed wide dispersion of these forms and argues, at least from the mammalian evidence, against a highly provincialized Pangaea. Some differences are however established between the filial western/eastern Gondwanan masses and their respective faunas.


Amphilestid Triconodont Jurassic South America 



This project has been funded by NSF DEB 0946430, DEB 1068089 (to G.W.R.), Agencia de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2006–01756), CONICET (Beca de Postgrado de Tipo I and II to L.C.G.), and a DFG travel grant to L.C.G.

The Secretaría de Cultura del Chubut, the Museo Paleontológico “Egidio Feruglio”, the Escuela Rural No. 31, and the Farias family as well as many researchers, students, and technicians have been crucial for the success of our field work.

Leandro Canessa is deeply thanked for the quick and superb preparation of the specimen presented here and almost life-long field support.

Dr. Mancuso, Dr. F. Abdala, and Dr. D. Pol are thanked for valuable suggestions in early stages of this manuscript. The editor and the reviewers are thanked for their valuable comments and help.

Access to comparative material was allowed by Dr. D. Brinkman, Dr. M. Carrano, Dr. J. Cundiff, Dr. J. Hooker, Dr. P. Jeffery, Dr. F. Jenkins Jr., Dr. A. Kramarz, Dr. P. Makovicky, Dr. J. Meng, Dr. C. Norris, Dr. M. Richter, Dr. E. Ruigomez, and Dr. W. Simpson.

Version 1.1 of TNT was freely granted through the sponsorship of the Willi Henning Society.

This is LCG’s contribution R-55 of the Instituto de Estudios Andinos Don Pablo Groeber.

Supplementary material

10914_2012_9194_MOESM1_ESM.doc (5.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 5416 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IDEAN, Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad de Buenos AiresCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Anatomical Sciences and NeurobiologyUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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