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Journal of Mammalian Evolution

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 23–32 | Cite as

The South American Gomphotheres (Mammalia, Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae): Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography

  • Dimila MothéEmail author
  • Leonardo S. Avilla
  • Mario A. Cozzuol
Original Paper

Abstract

The taxonomic history of South American Gomphotheriidae is very complex and controversial. Three species are currently recognized: Amahuacatherium peruvium, Cuvieronius hyodon, and Notiomastodon platensis. The former is a late Miocene gomphothere whose validity has been questioned by several authors. The other two, C. hyodon and N. platensis, are Quaternary taxa in South America, and they have distinct biogeographic patterns: Andean and lowland distributions, respectively. South American gomphotheres became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of Proboscidea including the South American Quaternary gomphotheres, which resulted in two most parsimonious trees. Our results support a paraphyletic Gomphotheriidae and a monophyletic South American gomphothere lineage: C. hyodon and N. platensis. The late Miocene gomphothere record in Peru, Amahuacatherium peruvium, seems to be a crucial part of the biogeography and evolution of the South American gomphotheres.

Keywords

South American Gomphotheres Systematic review Taxonomy Proboscidea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to C. Cartelle (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Brazil), R. Machado (Museu de Ciências da Terra/Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral, Brazil), A. M. Ribeiro (Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), J. Pereira (Museu Coronel Tancredo Fernandes de Mello, Brazil), N. Guidon and R. Casati (Fundação Museu do Homem Americano, Brazil), A. Rojas (Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Republica, Uruguay), J. L. Román-Carrión (Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Ecuador), J. E. A. Mosquera (Museo Geológico Nacional José Royo y Gómez, Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería, Colombia), M. Reguero (Museo de La Plata, Argentina), A. Kramarz (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Argentina), P. Tassy (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, France), B. Macfadden and R. Hulbert (Florida Museum of Natural History, USA), and J. Galkin (American Museum of Natural History, USA) for allowing the access to the gomphothere collections that supported this study. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) granted master scholarship fund to DM (process number 134905/2010-5).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimila Mothé
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leonardo S. Avilla
    • 2
  • Mario A. Cozzuol
    • 3
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Zoologia)Museu Nacional/UFRJRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Laboratório de MastozoologiaUniversidade Federal do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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