Advertisement

Journal of Medical Humanities

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 197–213 | Cite as

Toward an Aesthetic Medicine: Developing a Core Medical Humanities Undergraduate Curriculum

  • Alan BleakleyEmail author
  • Robert Marshall
  • Rainer Brömer
Original Paper

Abstract

The medical humanities are often implemented in the undergraduate medicine curriculum through injection of discrete option courses as compensation for an overdose of science. The medical humanities may be reformulated as process and perspective, rather than content, where the curriculum is viewed as an aesthetic text and learning as aesthetic and ethical identity formation. This article suggests that a “humanities” perspective may be inherent to the life sciences required for study of medicine. The medical humanities emerge as a revelation of value inherent to an aesthetic medicine taught and learned imaginatively.

Keywords

Medical humanities Curriculum Aesthetic medicine Ethical awareness Scientific imagination 

References

  1. A. Applebee, Curriculum as Conversation: Transforming Traditions of Teaching and Learning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  2. A. Arnott, G. Bolton, M. Evans, I. Finlay, J. Macnaughton, and R. Meakin. “Proposal for an Academic Association for Medical Humanities.” Journal of Medical Ethics: Medical Humanities 27(2001): 104–105.Google Scholar
  3. O. Barfield, Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  4. D. Batchelor, Minimalism (London: Tate Gallery, 1997).Google Scholar
  5. J. W. Bernauer, Michel Foucault's Force of Flight: Toward an Ethics for Thought (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  6. J. W. Bernauer, and D. Rasmussen, (Eds.) The Final Foucault (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  7. B. Bernstein, Class, Codes and Control, Vol. 1 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973).Google Scholar
  8. R. Blau, The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics (Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  9. A. Bleakley, R. Farrow, D. Gould, and R. Marshall, “Learning How to See: Doctors Making Judgments in the Visual Domain.” The Journal of Workplace Learning 15 (2003a): 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. A. Bleakley, R. Farrow, D. Gould, and R. Marshall, “Making Sense of Clinical Reasoning: Judgment and the Evidence of the Senses.” Medical Education 37 (2003b): 544–552.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. A. Bleakley, A. Hobbs, J. Boyden, and L. Walsh, “Safety in Operating Theatres: Improving Teamwork through Team Resource Management.” The Journal of Workplace Learning 16 (2004): 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. A. Bleakley, “Doctors as Connoisseurs of Informational Images: Aesthetic and Ethical Self-forming through Medical Education.” In J. Satterthwaite, E. Atkinson, and W. Martin eds., Educational Counter-Cultures: Confrontations, Images, Vision (London: Trentham, 2004a): 149–164.Google Scholar
  13. A. Bleakley, “Your Creativity or Mine?: A Typology of Creativities in Higher Education.” Teaching in Higher Education 5 (2004b): 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. A. Bleakley, “Stories as Data, Data as Stories: Making Sense of Narrative Inquiry in Clinical Education.” Medical Education 39 (2005): 534–540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. A. Bleakley, “You Are Who I Say You Are: The Rhetorical Construction of Identity in Operating Theatre Teams.” Journal of Workplace Learning (in press, 2006).Google Scholar
  16. H. P. A. Boshuizen, “Medical Education; Or the Art of Keeping a Balance Between Science and Pragmatics.” In R. McCormick and C. Paechter eds., Learning and Knowledge (London: Paul Chapman, 1999), 185–197.Google Scholar
  17. R. Brawn, “The formal and the intuitive in science and medicine.” In T. Atkinson and G. Claxton eds., The Intuitive Practitioner: On the Value of Not Always Knowing What One is Doing (Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000), 137–148.Google Scholar
  18. J. Bruner, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  19. S. Buck-Morss, “Aesthetics and Anaesthetics: Walter Benjamin's Artwork Essay Reconsidered.” In R. Krauss, A. Michelson, Y.-A. Bois, B. H. D. Buchloch, H. Foster, D. Hollier, and S. Kolbowski eds., October: The Second Decade, 1986–1996 (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997), 375–413.Google Scholar
  20. G. Canguilhem, The Normal and the Pathological (New York: Zone Books, 1991).Google Scholar
  21. S. Carey, and C. Smith, “On Understanding the Nature of Scientific Knowledge.” In R. McCormick and C. Paechter eds., Learning and Knowledge (London: Paul Chapman, 1999), 170–184.Google Scholar
  22. R. Carver, Where I’m Calling From (New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  23. T. Chambers, The Fiction of Bioethics: Cases as Literary Texts (New York: Routledge, 1999).Google Scholar
  24. R. Charon, and M. Montello (eds.), Stories Matter: The Role of Narrative in Medical Ethics (New York: Routledge, 2002).Google Scholar
  25. S. W. Chauvin, Professionalism: A Shared Responsibility for a Rich and Enduring Tapestry. Medical Education 36 (2002): 410–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. M. Cole, “Alexander Luria, Cultural Psychology and the Resolution of the Crisis in Psychology”, 1997: <http://Icc.ucsd.edu/People/ Localz/MCole/luria.html>Google Scholar
  27. G. Deleuze, and F. Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  28. J. Derrida, Of Grammatology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).Google Scholar
  29. L. Dittrich, and A. L. Farmakidis (eds.), “The Humanities and Medicine: Reports of 41 U.S., Canadian, and International Programs.” Academic Medicine 78(10) (Special Issue 2003).Google Scholar
  30. R. Driver, J. Leach, R. Millar, and P. Scott, “Perspectives on the Nature of Science,” In R. McCormick and C. Paechter eds., Learning and Knowledge (London: Paul Chapman, 1999): 36–55.Google Scholar
  31. Y. Engestrom, Learning by Expanding: An Activity-Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research (Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy, 1987).Google Scholar
  32. Y. Engestrom, “New Forms of Learning in Co-configuration Work.” The Journal of Workplace Learning 16 (2004): 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M. Eraut, Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence (London: The Falmer Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  34. D. Fish, and C. Coles, Developing Professional Judgement in Health Care: Learning through the Critical Appreciation of Practice (Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).Google Scholar
  35. M. Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (London: Tavistock, 1973).Google Scholar
  36. M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Pantheon, 1977).Google Scholar
  37. M. Foucault, “On the Genealogy of Ethics: An Overview of Work in Progress.” In P. Rabinow ed., The Foucault Reader (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 351.Google Scholar
  38. J. M. Genn, “Curriculum, Environment, Climate, Quality and Change in Medical Education—A Unifying Perspective.” Medical Teacher 23 (2001): 337–344, 445–454.Google Scholar
  39. J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986).Google Scholar
  40. J. Gordon, “Fostering Students’ Personal and Professional Development in Medicine: A New Framework for PPD.” Medical Education 37 (2003): 341–349.Google Scholar
  41. T. Greenhalgh, and B. Hurwitz (eds.), Narrative Based Medicine (London: BMJ Books, 1998).Google Scholar
  42. N. Herringman (ed.), Romantic Science: The Literary Forms of Natural History (New York: SUNY Press, 2003).Google Scholar
  43. L. Hudson, Contrary Imaginations: A Psychological Study of the English Schoolboy (London: Methuen, 1966).Google Scholar
  44. L. Hudson, Frames of Mind: Ability, Perception, and Self-perception in the Arts and Sciences (London: Norton, 1969).Google Scholar
  45. K. M. Hunter, Doctors’ Stories: The Narrative Structure of Medical Knowledge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  46. K. M. Hunter, “Aphorisms, Maxims, and Old Saws: Narrative Rationality and the Negotiation of Clinical Choice.” In L. Nelson ed., Stories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to Bioethics (New York: Routledge, 1997), 215–231.Google Scholar
  47. Hunter, “Phronesis and the Misdescription of Medicine: Against The Medical School Commencement Speech.” In M. G. Kuczewski and R. Polansky eds., Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002), 57–66.Google Scholar
  48. I. Illich, Limits to Medicine: Medical Nemesis, the Expropriation of Health (London: Marion Boyars, 1999).Google Scholar
  49. H. Kerosuo, and Y. Engestrom, “Boundary Crossing and Learning in Creation of New Work Practice.” The Journal of Workplace Learning 15 (2003): 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. M. G. Kuczewski, and R. Polansky (eds.), Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  51. B. Latour, Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  52. B. Latour, We Have Never Been Modern (New York: Harvester-Wheatsheaf, 1993).Google Scholar
  53. B. Latour, Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  54. L. Lingard, B. Hodges, H. MacRae, and R. Freeman, Expert and Trainee Determinations of Rhetorical Relevance in Referral and Consultation Letters. Medical Education 38 (2004): 168–176.Google Scholar
  55. S. Lotringer (ed.), Foucault Live: Collected Interviews, 1961–1984 (New York: Semiotext(e), 1989).Google Scholar
  56. D. Marzona, Minimal Art (Koln: Taschen, 2004).Google Scholar
  57. J. C. McLachlan, J. Bligh, P. Bradley, and J. Searle, “Teaching Anatomy Without Cadavers.” Medical Education 38 (2004a): 418–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. J. C. McLachlan, and S. Regan deBere, How Do We Teach Anatomy Without Cadavers? Clinical Teacher 1: (2004b): 49–52.Google Scholar
  59. J. Meyer, Minimalism (London: Phaidon Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  60. H. L. Nelson (ed.), Stories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to Bioethics (New York: Routledge, 1997).Google Scholar
  61. T. O’Leary, Foucault and the Art of Ethics (London: Continuum, 2002).Google Scholar
  62. H. G. Pauli, K. L. White, and I. R. McWhinney, “Medical Education, Research, and Scientific Thinking in the 21st Century.” Education for Health 13 (2000): 15–26, 165–172, 173–186.Google Scholar
  63. W. F. Pinar, and W. M. Reynolds (eds.), Understanding Curriculum as Phenomenological and Deconstructed Text (New York: Teachers College Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  64. W. F. Pinar, W. M. Reynolds, P. Slattery, and P. M. Taubman, Understanding Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses (New York: Peter Lang, 1996).Google Scholar
  65. R. Polansky, “Is Medicine Art, Science, or Practical Wisdom? Ancient and Contemporary Reflections.” In M. G. Kuczewski and R. Polansky eds., Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2002), 31–56.Google Scholar
  66. M. Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension (Gloucester, Mass: Peter Smith, 1983).Google Scholar
  67. M. Polanyi, and H. Prosch, Meaning (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1977).Google Scholar
  68. L. Pololi, and R. M. Frankel, “Humanising Medical Education through Faculty Development: Linking Self-awareness and Teaching Skills.” Medical Education 39 (2005): 154–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. R. J. Richards, The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  70. M. Ross (ed.), Assessment in Arts Education (Oxford: Pergamon, 1986).Google Scholar
  71. D. Schon, Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991).Google Scholar
  72. J. Simons, Foucault & the Political (London: Routledge, 1995).Google Scholar
  73. P. Slattery, Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era (New York: Garland Publishing, 1995).Google Scholar
  74. W. B. Stanley, Curriculum for Utopia: Social Reconstructionism and Critical Pedagogy in the Postmodern Era (New York: SUNY Press, 1992).Google Scholar
  75. Thomasma, “Aristotle, Phronesis, and Postmodern Bioethics.” In M. G. Kuczewski and R. Polansky eds., Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2002), 67–92.Google Scholar
  76. J. van Dijck, The Transparent Body: A Cultural Analysis of Medical Imaging (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  77. C. Waldby, The Visible Human Project: Informatic Bodies and Posthuman Medicine (London: Routledge, 2000).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Bleakley
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert Marshall
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rainer Brömer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Clinical Education, Peninsula Medical SchoolUniversities of Exeter and PlymouthPlymouthUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Royal Cornwall HospitalTruroUK
  3. 3.Department of PathologyRoyal Cornwall HospitalTruroUK

Personalised recommendations