Impact of Obesity on Mammary Gland Inflammation and Local Estrogen Production

Article

Abstract

Obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past century, having nearly doubled since 1980. Changes in diet and lifestyle have contributed to this occurrence in younger women, and changing hormone levels during the menopausal transition has no doubt exacerbated the issue in older women. The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer is clear in postmenopausal women, and is intimately linked to the increased expression of aromatase and the production of estrogens within the breast adipose. This, in turn, is highly dependent on the localized chronic inflammation observed in obese adipose. This review will therefore explore the relationship between obesity, inflammation and estrogens, with a particular focus on the molecular regulation of aromatase in the postmenopausal breast in the context of obesity and breast cancer.

Keywords

Obesity Breast Mammary gland Inflammation Estrogen Aromatase 

Abbreviations

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

AP-1

Activating protein-1

ATF2

Activating transcription factor 2

CLS

Crown-like structures

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CRE

cAMP response element

CREB

cAMP response element binding protein

CRTC

CREB-regulated transcription coactivator

E2

Estradiol-17β

Egr

Early growth response

EP

E-prostanoid

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

HIF1α

Hypoxia inducible factor 1α

IL-1β

Interleukin-1β

IL-6

Interleukin-6

JNK

C-jun NH2-terminal kinase

LKB1

Liver kinase B1

LRH-1

Liver receptor homolog-1

MAPK

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κB

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor α

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metabolism & Cancer LaboratoryMIMR-PHI Institute of Medical ResearchClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.Monash Institute of Medical ResearchMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  4. 4.Metabolism & Cancer LaboratoryMIMR-PHI Institute of Medical ResearchClaytonAustralia

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