Regulation of Breast Cancer Metastasis by IGF Signaling

Article

Abstract

The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) signaling via the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) regulate multiple aspects of malignancy. The importance of IGF-1R in regulating the malignant phenotype is currently being validated in numerous clinical trials for cancer including breast cancer. This review discusses the regulation of breast cancer metastasis by IGF-1R. IGF-1R stimulates invasion and survival in anchorage independent conditions. The regulation of metastasis independently of tumor growth by IGF-1R is also discussed. Finally, the impact of this on clinical trial design and outcomes, and the need for biomarkers, other than reduction in tumor size, are discussed in light of the fact that inhibition of metastasis is not measured in conventional clinical trial design.

Keywords

Insulin-like growth factors Type I IGF receptor Breast cancer Metastasis Survival Antibodies 

Abbreviations

AI

aromatase inhibitor

DCE-MRI

dynamic-contrast enhanced-MRI

ER

estrogen receptor

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IGFBPs

IGF binding proteins

IGF-1R

type I IGF receptor

IR

insulin receptor

IRS

insulin receptor substrate

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MMTV

mouse mammary tumor virus

MRS

magnetic resonance spectroscopy

PI3K

phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase

PET

positron emission tomography

PyV-MT

polyoma virus middle T antigen

RACK1

scaffolding protein receptor for activated C kinase

RTK

receptor tyrosine kinases

SERM

selective estrogen receptor modulator

SHC

Src-homology containing protein

WAP

whey acidic protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Masonic Cancer CenterUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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