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Organotropism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

  • Xin Lu
  • Yibin Kang
Article

Abstract

Breast cancer causes mortality by metastasizing to a variety of vital organs, such as bone, lung, brain and liver. Effective therapeutic intervention of this deadly process relies on a better mechanistic understanding of metastasis organotropism. Recent studies have confirmed earlier speculations that metastasis is a non-random process and is dependent on intricate tumor-stroma interactions at the target organ. Both the intrinsic properties of breast cancer cells and the host organ microenvironment are important in determining the efficiency of organ-specific metastasis. Advances in animal modeling, in vivo imaging and functional genomics have accelerated the discovery of important molecular mediators of organ-specific metastasis. A conceptual framework of breast cancer organotropism is emerging and will be instrumental in guiding future efforts in this exciting research field.

Keywords

Breast cancer Metastasis Organotropism Tissue-specific metastasis Bone metastasis Lung metastasis Cancer stem cell Metastasis niche 

Abbreviations

ADAMTS1

a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif1

BBB

blood brain barrier

BMP

bone morphogenetic protein

BSP

bone sialoprotein

CATK

cathepsin K

CSC

cancer stem cell

CTGF

connective tissue growth factor

CXCR4

CXC motif chemokine receptor 4

ECM

extracellular matrix

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

GM-CSF

granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IL

interleukin

JNK

Jun N-terminal kinase

MEC

mammary epithelial cell

M-CSF

macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

NFκB

nuclear factor kappa B

OPG

osteoprotegerin

OPN

osteopontin

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

PlGF

placental growth factor

PMN

pre-metastasis niche

PTHrP

parathyroid hormone-related protein

RANK

receptor activator of NFκB

RANKL

receptor activator of NFκB ligand

SDF1

stromal derived factor 1

TGFβ

transforming growth factor beta

TNFα

tumor necrosis factor alpha

TRAP

tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

VCAM

vascular cell adhesion molecule

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank members of our laboratory for the critical reading of this manuscript and apologize to those colleagues whose important work may not be cited directly and discussed here owing to space limitations. Research in our laboratory is supported by the American Cancer Society (RSG MGO-110765), Department of Defense (BC051647), Susan G. Komen Foundation (BCTR0503765), and the NJ Commission on Cancer Research (05-2408-CCR-E0).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular BiologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

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