Mammary Gland Involution as a Multi-step Process

  • Torsten Stein
  • Nathan Salomonis
  • Barry A. Gusterson
Article

Abstract

Mammary gland involution is a highly complex multi-step process in which the lactating gland returns to a morphologically near pre-pregnant state. This developmental stage is characterized by a high degree of epithelial cell death, redevelopment of the mammary adipose tissue and tissue remodelling. Many factors involved have been described and these have been reviewed intensively in this journal (Furth, P. A., J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia, 4:123–127, 1999) and elsewhere. Microarray analysis technology has now not only allowed us to identify genes not previously associated with involution (Stein, T., Morris, J.S., Davis, C.R.,Weber-Hall, S.J., Duffy, M.A., Heath, V.J., et al., Breast Cancer Res., 6: R75–R91, 2004; Clarkson, R.W., Wayland, M.T., Lee, J., Freeman, T., Watson, C.J., Breast Cancer Res., 6: R92–R109, 2004; Clarkson, R.W., Watson, C.J., J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia, 8: 309–319, 2003), it has also enabled us to define multiple phases of the controlled regulatory response to forced weaning on the basis of their transcriptional profiles. This review provides a synthesis of published data, integrating the time course of transcriptional activity in the mouse mammary gland with a gene ontology approach to identify the pathways involved.

Keywords

Involution Microarrays Immune response Apoptosis Remodelling 

Abbreviations

AP-1

activator protein 1

APRF

acute phase response factor

C/EBP

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein

IGFBP

insulin-like growth factor binding protein

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

PI3-K

phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SCID

severe combined immune deficiency

SMAD

sma- and mad-related protein

STAT

signal transducer and activator of transcription

TGF

transforming growth factor

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TRAIL

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TWEAK

TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis

ZIP

leucine zipper

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torsten Stein
    • 1
  • Nathan Salomonis
    • 2
  • Barry A. Gusterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cancer Sciences and Molecular Pathology, Section of Gene Regulation and Mechanisms of Disease, Western InfirmaryUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular DiseaseSan FranciscoUSA

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