The Beginning of the End: Death Signaling in Early Involution

  • Fiona O. Baxter
  • Kevin Neoh
  • Maxine C. Tevendale
Article

Abstract

Mammary gland involution occurs in two distinct phases: an early, reversible phase, involving extensive apoptosis of the secretory alveolar epithelium without major changes in gland architecture, and a later, irreversible phase, involving remodelling of the gland to its pre-pregnancy state. Multiple signalling pathways are known to be important during early involution, however the precise triggers remain elusive. This review summarizes the roles of a number of key pathways (NF-κB, PI(3)K, Stat3, and TGFβ) in the first phase of involution.

Keywords

Early involution NF-κB PI(3)K Stat3 TGFβ 

Abbreviations

BLG

β-lactoglobulin

C/EBPδ

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta

DR

death receptor

FAK

focal adhesion kinase

FasL

fas ligand

GSK3β

glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP

insulin-like growth factor binding protein

IGFR

insulin-like growth factor receptor

IKK

inhibitor of kappa b kinase

IL

interleukin

LIF

leukaemia inhibitory factor

MFG-E8

milk fat globule EGF factor 8

MMTV

mouse mammary tumour virus

OSM

oncostatin M

OSMR

oncostatin M receptor

PI(3)K

phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PIP2

phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate

PIP3

phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

PRL

prolactin

TGFβ

transforming growth factor beta

TNF

tumour necrosis factor

TNFR

tumour necrosis factor receptor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona O. Baxter
    • 1
  • Kevin Neoh
    • 1
  • Maxine C. Tevendale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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