Group-theoretical Foundations for the Concept of Mandalas as Diagrammatical Expressions for Characterizing Symmetries of Stereoisomers

  • Shinsaku Fujita

Group-theoretical foundations for the concept of mandalas have been formulated algebraically and diagrammatically in order to reinforce the spread of the unit-subduced-cycle-index (USCI) approach (S. Fujita, Symmetry and Combinatorial Enumeration in Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1991). Thus, after the introducton of right coset representations (RCR) (H\)G and left coset representations (LCR) G(/H) for the group G and its subgroup H, a regular body of G-symmetry is defined as a diagrammatical expression for a right regular representation (C 1\)G, which is an extreme case of RCRs. The |G| substitution positions of the regular body as a reference are numbered in accord with the numbering of the elements of G and segmented into |G|/|H| of H-segments, which are governed by the RCR (H\)G. By regarding each H-segment as a substitution position, the H-segmented regular body is reduced into a reduced regular body, which can be regarded as a secondary skeleton for generating a molecule. The reference regular body (or H-segmented one) is operated by every symmetry operations of G to generate regular bodies (or H-segmented ones), which are placed on the vertices of a hypothetical regular body of G-symmetry. The resulting diagram (a nested regular body) is called a mandala (or a reduced mandala), which is a diagrammatical expression for specifying the G-symmetry of a molecule. The effect of a K-subduction on the regular bodies of a mandala (or a reduced mandala) results in the K-assemblage of the mandala (or the reduced mandala), where the resulting K-assemblies governed by the LCR G(/K) construct a |G|/|K|-membered orbit, which corresponds to a molecule of K-symmetry. The sphericity of the RCR (or the LCR) is used to characterize symmetrical properties of substitution positions and those of stereoisomers. The fixed-point vector for each mandala (or reduced mandala) in terms of row view and the number of fixed points of K-assembled mandalas (or K-assembled reduced mandalas) in terms of column view are compared to accomplish combinatorial enumeration of stereoisomers. The relationship between a mandala and a reordered multiplication table is discussed.


mandala regular body segmentation assemblage sphericity coset representation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Materials TechnologyKyoto Institute of TechnologyKyotoJapan

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