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Journal of Low Temperature Physics

, Volume 194, Issue 5–6, pp 453–459 | Cite as

\(^{163}\)Ho Distillation and Implantation for HOLMES Experiment

  • G. GallucciEmail author
  • M. Biasotti
  • V. Ceriale
  • M. De Gerone
  • M. Faverzani
  • E. Ferri
  • F. Gatti
  • A. Giachero
  • P. Manfrinetti
  • A. Nucciotti
  • A. Orlando
  • A. Provino
  • A. Puiu
Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

HOLMES is an experiment to directly measure the neutrino mass with a calorimetric approach. The calorimetric technique eliminates several systematic uncertainties usually present in spectrometers where the external source and decays to excited states affect the measurement. \(^{163}\hbox {Ho}\) is chosen as source for its very low Q value (2.8 keV), the proximity of the end-point to resonance M1 and its half life (4570 year). These features are optimal to reach simultaneously a reasonable activity to have sufficient statistics in the end-point and a small quantity of \(^{163}\hbox {Ho}\) embedded in the detector not to alter significantly its heat capacity. \(^{163}\hbox {Ho}\) will be produced via neutron irradiation of enriched \(^{162}\hbox {Er}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\) at the Institute Laue–Langevin (Grenoble, France), and chemically separated at Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland). It will arrive at INFN laboratory of Genova in oxide form (\(\hbox {Ho}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\)) with traces of others Ho isotopes and contaminants not removable using chemical methods. In particular, the metastable \(^{166\hbox {m}}\hbox {Ho}\) undergoes beta decay with a half life of about 1200 year, if present \(^{166\hbox {m}}\hbox {Ho}\) induces background below 5 keV. The removal of these contaminants is critical for HOLMES so a dedicated system is being set up. The system is designed to achieve an optimal mass separation for \(^{163}\hbox {Ho}\) and consists of two main components: an evaporation chamber and an ion implanter. In the evaporation chamber, holmium will be reduced in metallic form, using the reaction \(\hbox {2Y+Ho}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\rightarrow \)\(\hbox {Y}_{2}\hbox {O}_{3}\hbox {+2Ho}\) and used to produce a metallic target for the ion implanter source. The ion implanter consists of five main components: a Penning sputter ion source, an acceleration section, a magnetic/electrostatic mass analyser, a magnetic scanning stage and a focusing electrostatic triplet. In this contribution, we describe the procedures, under continuous refinement, for the holmium evaporation process, the ion-implanted metallic target production and the status of the ion implanter.

Keywords

HOLMES Neutrino mass Holmium Mass separator Ion implantation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The HOLMES experiment is funded by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No. 340321.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Gallucci
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Biasotti
    • 1
  • V. Ceriale
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. De Gerone
    • 2
  • M. Faverzani
    • 3
    • 4
  • E. Ferri
    • 3
  • F. Gatti
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Giachero
    • 3
  • P. Manfrinetti
    • 5
  • A. Nucciotti
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Orlando
    • 3
  • A. Provino
    • 5
  • A. Puiu
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GenovaGenovaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di GenovaGenovaItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano BicoccaMilanoItaly
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Milano BicoccaMilanoItaly
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry and Industrial ChemistryUniversity of GenovaGenovaItaly

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