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Journal of Low Temperature Physics

, Volume 193, Issue 5–6, pp 732–738 | Cite as

Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape

  • Volodymyr Yefremenko
  • Peter A. R. Ade
  • Zeeshan Ahmed
  • Adam J. Anderson
  • Jason E. Austermann
  • Jessica S. Avva
  • Robitan Basu Thakur
  • Amy N. Bender
  • Bradford A. Benson
  • John E. Carlstrom
  • Faustin W. Carter
  • Thomas Cecil
  • Clarence L. Chang
  • Jean-Francois Cliche
  • Ariel Cukierman
  • Edward V. Denison
  • Tijmen de Haan
  • Junjia Ding
  • Ralu N. S. Divan
  • Matt A. Dobbs
  • Daniel Dutcher
  • Wenderline Everett
  • Allen Foster
  • Renae N. Gannon
  • Adam Gilbert
  • John Groh
  • Nils W. Halverson
  • Angelina H. Harke-Hosemann
  • Nicholas L. Harrington
  • Jason W. Henning
  • Gene C. Hilton
  • William L. Holzapfel
  • Nicholas Huang
  • Kent D. Irwin
  • Oliver B. Jeong
  • Michelle Jonas
  • Trupti Khaire
  • Anna M. Kofman
  • Milo Korman
  • Donna L. Kubik
  • Steve Kuhlmann
  • Chao-Lin Kuo
  • Adrian T. Lee
  • Amy E. Lowitz
  • Stephen S. Meyer
  • Daniel Michalik
  • Christina Suzanne Miller
  • Joshua Montgomery
  • Andrew Nadolski
  • Tyler J. Natoli
  • Hogan Nguyen
  • Gavin Noble
  • Valentine Novosad
  • Stephen Padin
  • Zhaodi Pan
  • John Pearson
  • Chrystian M. Posada
  • Alexandra Rahlin
  • John E. Ruhl
  • L. J. Saunders
  • James T. Sayre
  • Ian Shirley
  • Erik D. Shirokoff
  • Graeme Smecher
  • Joshua A. Sobrin
  • Liliana Stan
  • Antony A. Stark
  • Kyle T. Story
  • Aritoki Suzuki
  • Qing Yang Tang
  • Keith L. Thompson
  • Carole E. Tucker
  • Leila R. Vale
  • Keith Vanderlinde
  • Joaquin D. Vieira
  • Gensheng Wang
  • Nathan Whitehorn
  • Ki Won Yoon
  • Matt Young
Article
  • 105 Downloads

Abstract

The South Pole Telescope SPT-3G camera utilizes Ti/Au transition edge sensors (TESs). A key requirement for these sensors is reproducibility and long-term stability of the superconducting (SC) transitions. Here, we discuss the impact of electrical contacts design and materials on the shape of the SC transitions. Using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical differential interference contrast microscopy, we observed the presence of unexpected defects of morphological nature on the titanium surface and their evolution in time in proximity to Nb contacts. We found direct correlation between the variations of the morphology and the SC transition shape. Experiments with different diffusion barriers between TES and Nb leads were performed to clarify the origin of this problem. We have demonstrated that the reproducibility of superconducting transitions can be significantly improved by preventing diffusion processes in the TES–leads contact areas.

Keywords

Transition edge sensor Bolometer Ti films Diffusion 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The South Pole Telescope is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through Grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant PHY-1,125,897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, and the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant GBMF 947. Work at Argonne National Laboratory, including Laboratory Directed Research and Development support and use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science (DOE-OS) user facility, was supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Work at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, a DOE-OS, HEP User Facility managed by the Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, was supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359. NWH acknowledges support from NSF CAREER Grant AST-0956135. The McGill authors acknowledge funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and Canada Research Chairs Program.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Volodymyr Yefremenko
    • 1
  • Peter A. R. Ade
    • 2
  • Zeeshan Ahmed
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Adam J. Anderson
    • 6
    • 7
  • Jason E. Austermann
    • 8
  • Jessica S. Avva
    • 9
  • Robitan Basu Thakur
    • 7
  • Amy N. Bender
    • 1
    • 7
  • Bradford A. Benson
    • 6
    • 7
    • 10
  • John E. Carlstrom
    • 1
    • 7
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
  • Faustin W. Carter
    • 1
    • 7
  • Thomas Cecil
    • 1
  • Clarence L. Chang
    • 1
    • 7
    • 10
  • Jean-Francois Cliche
    • 13
  • Ariel Cukierman
    • 9
  • Edward V. Denison
    • 8
  • Tijmen de Haan
    • 9
  • Junjia Ding
    • 14
  • Ralu N. S. Divan
    • 15
  • Matt A. Dobbs
    • 13
    • 16
  • Daniel Dutcher
    • 7
    • 12
  • Wenderline Everett
    • 17
  • Allen Foster
    • 18
  • Renae N. Gannon
    • 14
  • Adam Gilbert
    • 13
  • John Groh
    • 9
  • Nils W. Halverson
    • 17
    • 19
  • Angelina H. Harke-Hosemann
    • 20
    • 1
  • Nicholas L. Harrington
    • 9
  • Jason W. Henning
    • 7
  • Gene C. Hilton
    • 8
  • William L. Holzapfel
    • 9
  • Nicholas Huang
    • 9
  • Kent D. Irwin
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Oliver B. Jeong
    • 9
  • Michelle Jonas
    • 6
  • Trupti Khaire
    • 14
  • Anna M. Kofman
    • 20
    • 21
  • Milo Korman
    • 18
  • Donna L. Kubik
    • 6
  • Steve Kuhlmann
    • 1
  • Chao-Lin Kuo
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Adrian T. Lee
    • 9
    • 22
  • Amy E. Lowitz
    • 7
  • Stephen S. Meyer
    • 7
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
  • Daniel Michalik
    • 10
  • Christina Suzanne Miller
    • 15
  • Joshua Montgomery
    • 13
  • Andrew Nadolski
    • 20
  • Tyler J. Natoli
    • 23
  • Hogan Nguyen
    • 6
  • Gavin Noble
    • 13
  • Valentine Novosad
    • 14
  • Stephen Padin
    • 7
  • Zhaodi Pan
    • 7
    • 12
  • John Pearson
    • 14
  • Chrystian M. Posada
    • 14
  • Alexandra Rahlin
    • 6
    • 7
  • John E. Ruhl
    • 18
  • L. J. Saunders
    • 1
    • 7
  • James T. Sayre
    • 17
  • Ian Shirley
    • 9
  • Erik D. Shirokoff
    • 7
    • 10
  • Graeme Smecher
    • 24
  • Joshua A. Sobrin
    • 7
    • 12
  • Liliana Stan
    • 15
  • Antony A. Stark
    • 25
  • Kyle T. Story
    • 3
    • 4
  • Aritoki Suzuki
    • 9
    • 22
  • Qing Yang Tang
    • 7
    • 10
  • Keith L. Thompson
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Carole E. Tucker
    • 2
  • Leila R. Vale
    • 8
  • Keith Vanderlinde
    • 23
    • 26
  • Joaquin D. Vieira
    • 20
    • 21
  • Gensheng Wang
    • 1
  • Nathan Whitehorn
    • 27
    • 9
  • Ki Won Yoon
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Matt Young
    • 26
  1. 1.High-Energy Physics DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  2. 2.School of Physics and AstronomyCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  3. 3.Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and CosmologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  5. 5.SLAC National Accelerator LaboratoryMenlo ParkUSA
  6. 6.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, MS209BataviaUSA
  7. 7.Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  8. 8.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyBoulderUSA
  9. 9.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  10. 10.Department of Astronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  11. 11.Enrico Fermi InstituteUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  12. 12.Department of PhysicsUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  13. 13.Department of PhysicsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  14. 14.Material Science DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  15. 15.Argonne National LaboratoryCenter for Nanoscale MaterialsArgonneUSA
  16. 16.CIFAR Program in Cosmology and GravityCanadian Institute for Advanced ResearchTorontoCanada
  17. 17.CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary SciencesUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  18. 18.Physics DepartmentCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  19. 19.Department of PhysicsUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  20. 20.Astronomy DepartmentUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  21. 21.Department of PhysicsUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  22. 22.Physics DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  23. 23.Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  24. 24.Three-Speed Logic, Inc.VancouverCanada
  25. 25.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA
  26. 26.Department of Astronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  27. 27.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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