From Liquid Helium to Granular Materials
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This article provides a brief history of work that I have either carried out with Horst Meyer, or that was connected in some way with experiences reaching back to the laboratory known as LTM for low temperature [physics] Meyer, at Duke University. It is not intended as a complete review of all relevant work, but rather to hit highlights. My work with Horst started with studies of critical phenomena in liquid helium. This system provided an extremely rich and diverse testing ground for then newly emerging theories of static and dynamic critical phenomena. A key aspect of the experimental work with Horst was high-precision measurements of temperature and pressure. The ability to measure thermal properties with exceptional precision was at the core of this work. It also provided a natural springboard for entirely different investigations of Rayleigh–Bénard convection, which had just been initiated by Guenter Ahlers. My postdoc with Guenter provided a whole new set of experiences involving convection, dynamical instabilities, and chaos, where again the special properties, measurement techniques, and creative approaches to research associated with liquid helium were critical. In fact, later, knowledge of these techniques allowed me to start a whole new research direction in granular materials, which is a primary focus of my current research.
KeywordsCritical phenomena Liquid helium Rayleigh–Bénard convection Granular materials Force chains Jamming by shear
The work described here has been supported by numerous grants and organizations, including currently NSF-DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G, W.M. Keck Foundation, the Triangle MRSEC, NSF-DMS1248071, and recently by DTRA, IFPRI, and ARO. I particularly appreciate helpful comments by a reviewer.
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