# On the Paramagnetic Impurity Concentration of Silicate Glasses from Low-Temperature Physics

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## Abstract

The concentration of paramagnetic trace impurities in glasses can be determined via precise SQUID measurements of the sample’s magnetization in a magnetic field. However, the existence of quasi-ordered structural inhomogeneities in the disordered solid causes correlated tunneling currents that can contribute to the magnetization, surprisingly, also at the higher temperatures. We show that taking into account such tunneling systems gives rise to a good agreement between the concentrations extracted from SQUID magnetization and those extracted from low-temperature heat capacity measurements. Without suitable inclusion of such magnetization contribution from the tunneling currents, we find that the concentration of paramagnetic impurities gets considerably over-estimated. This analysis represents a further positive test for the structural inhomogeneity theory of the magnetic effects in the cold glasses.

## Keywords

Low-temperature thermometry Magnetization of non-magnetic glasses Magnetic effects in insulating glasses Low- temperature properties of glasses## Notes

### Acknowledgments

One of us (SB) acknowledges support from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through a Ph.D. Grant of the Progetto Giovani (ambito indagine n.7: materiali avanzati (in particolare ceramici) per applicazioni strutturali), as well as from the Bando VINCI-2014 of the Università Italo-Francese. The other Author (GJ) is grateful to the Laboratoire des Verres et Colloïdes in Montpellier for hospitality and for many stimulating discussions, as well as to the Referees for useful comments on the manuscript. Enlightening conversations with Carlo Dossi and Paolo Sala about glass contaminants are also kindly acknowledged.

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