One- and Two-Electron Bubbles in Superfluid 4He
Properties of one- and two-electron bubbles in superfluid 4He at 0 K were studied by density functional theory. The model allows for accurate treatment of both the electronic and liquid degrees of freedom and as such, enables accurate calculation of bubble energetics for the ground and excited electronic states. The obtained results were compared against the earlier “bubble model” calculations and the limits and accuracy of the bubble model were established. The calculations were carried out in 3-D space and the non-spherical solvation structures for the 1P and 1D excited states were calculated. The 1P state was found to be stable within the radiative lifetime and no plausible non-radiative relaxation channels were found. Finally, a coupled boson and fermion density functional theory was used to show that two-electron bubbles are unstable in both the singlet and triplet electronic states.
KeywordsSolvated electron Superfluid helium
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