Link between Aggressiveness and Shyness in the Spider Philodromus albidus (Araneae, Philodromidae): State Dependency over Stability
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Behavioral syndromes, seen as correlations among two or more functionally different behaviors, are well documented in many different animal taxa. They may not be present automatically, however, and their consistency within populations and individuals also varies among studies. Here, we studied a behavioral syndrome comprising foraging aggressiveness and boldness/shyness and its time consistency in the cursorial spider Philodromus albidus. We measured foraging aggressiveness as the number of prey killed per 2-hour period. Boldness/shyness was assessed as a latency of initiating exploration in a novel environment. We found the presence of the behavioral syndrome in P. albidus, as bold individuals were also more aggressive than were shy individuals. The syndrome was consistent through time within the population but not consistent for individuals. We further discuss the possible causes of the pattern.
KeywordsState dependent behavior Flexibility inter-individual differences behavioral syndrome boldness personality type
We are very grateful to Petr Dolejš and to the anonymous reviewers for their comments that greatly improved our manuscript. RM and RŘ were supported by student grant no. MUNI/A/1484/2014 from Masaryk University. OK was supported by the European Social Fund and state budget of the Czech Republic, the project “Indicators of Trees Vitality” (Reg. No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0265), and by the Internal Grant Agency of Mendel University (Reg. No. LDF_VT_2016002/2016).
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Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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