Link between Aggressiveness and Shyness in the Spider Philodromus albidus (Araneae, Philodromidae): State Dependency over Stability
Behavioral syndromes, seen as correlations among two or more functionally different behaviors, are well documented in many different animal taxa. They may not be present automatically, however, and their consistency within populations and individuals also varies among studies. Here, we studied a behavioral syndrome comprising foraging aggressiveness and boldness/shyness and its time consistency in the cursorial spider Philodromus albidus. We measured foraging aggressiveness as the number of prey killed per 2-hour period. Boldness/shyness was assessed as a latency of initiating exploration in a novel environment. We found the presence of the behavioral syndrome in P. albidus, as bold individuals were also more aggressive than were shy individuals. The syndrome was consistent through time within the population but not consistent for individuals. We further discuss the possible causes of the pattern.
KeywordsState dependent behavior Flexibility inter-individual differences behavioral syndrome boldness personality type
We are very grateful to Petr Dolejš and to the anonymous reviewers for their comments that greatly improved our manuscript. RM and RŘ were supported by student grant no. MUNI/A/1484/2014 from Masaryk University. OK was supported by the European Social Fund and state budget of the Czech Republic, the project “Indicators of Trees Vitality” (Reg. No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0265), and by the Internal Grant Agency of Mendel University (Reg. No. LDF_VT_2016002/2016).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Buchar J, Růžička V (2002) Catalogue of spiders of the Czech Republic. Peres publishers, PrahaGoogle Scholar
- Pekár S, Brabec M (2009) Moderní analýza biologických dat 1. Zobecněné lineární modely v prostředí R [Modern analysis of biological data 1. Generalized linear models in R]. Scientia, Praha (in Czech)Google Scholar
- Pekár S, Brabec M (2012) Moderní analýza biologických dat 2. Lineární modely s korelacemi v prostředí R (modern analysis of biological data 2. Linear models with correlation in R). Masaryk University Press, Brno (in Czech)Google Scholar
- Platnick NI (2014) The world spider catalog, 14.5. http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog. Accessed 20 January 2014
- Schmitz OJ (2005) Behavior of predators and prey and links with population-level processes. In: Barbosa P, Castellanos I (eds) Ecology of predator-prey interactions. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC (2010) Behavioral syndromes. In: Westneat DE, Fox CW (eds) Evolutionary behavioral ecology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Sweeney K, Gadd RDH, Hess ZL, McDermott DR, MacDonald L, Cotter P, Armagost F, Chen JZ, Berning AW, DiRienzo N, Pruitt JN (2013) Assessing the effects of rearing environment, natural selection, and developmental stage on the emergence of a behavioral syndrome. Ethology 119:436–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Toft S (2013) Nutritional aspects of spider feeding. In: Nentwig W (ed) Spider ecophysiology. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Watts JC, Ross CR, Jones TC (2015) Diel and life-history characteristics of personality: consistency versus flexibility in relation to ecological change. Anim Behav 101:43-49Google Scholar