Synthesis of Fe3O4–Fe2O3@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Effect of Reactional Parameters on Structural and Magnetics Properties

  • Marla M. Lima
  • Domingos L. P. Macuvele
  • Janaína Nones
  • Luciano L. Silva
  • Humberto G. Riella
  • Márcio A. Fiori
  • Cíntia SoaresEmail author


The goal of this paper was to synthesize and characterize core–shell iron-carbon nanoparticles. For this purpose, nanoparticles were synthetized via a hydrothermal co-precipitation route, applying a 22 factorial experimental design with a central point, and varying both the concentration of the iron precursor (iron nitrate) and the reaction temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized via the following analysis: vibrating sample magnometry (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (SEM/FEG) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The results showed that the hydrothermal co-precipitation synthesis route enabled the production of Fe3O4–Fe2O3@C core–shell nanoparticles with dimensions between 4 and 8 nm. An increase in iron nitrate concentration and temperature during synthesis entailed a decrease in the remnant field and the magnetization of the nanoparticles.


Core–shell nanoparticles Magnetic nanoparticles Synthesis 



We acknowledge research supported by LCME-UFSC and financial support from the Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia/Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (MCT/CNPq/Brazil) and CAPES.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Chemical EngineeringFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPedagógica University of Mozambique, Branch of NiassaLichingaMozambique
  3. 3.Graduate Program in Environmental Science and Post-Graduation Program in Technology and Management of the InnovationCommunity University of Region ChapecóChapecóBrazil

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