Nanoarchitectonics of Nanoporous Carbon Materials from Natural Resource for Supercapacitor Application

  • Lok Kumar ShresthaEmail author
  • Rekha Goswami Shrestha
  • Sahira Joshi
  • Rinita Rajbhandari
  • Nishanta Shrestha
  • Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari
  • Raja Ram Pradhananga
  • Katsuhiko ArigaEmail author


Nanoarchitectonics of nanoporous carbon materials (NCMs) derived from natural resource; Areca Catechu Nut (ACN) with enhanced electrochemical supercapacitance properties is reported. ACN powder is chemically activated in a tubular furnace at 400 °C and the effect of activating agent sodium hydroxide (NaOH), zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the textural properties, surface functional groups and electrochemical supercapacitance properties was thoroughly examined. We found that ACN derived NCMs are amorphous in nature comprising of macropores, micropores and hierarchical micro- and mesopore architecture depending on the activating agent. Surface area and pore volume are found in the range 25–1985 m2 g−1 and 0.12–3.42 cm3 g−1, respectively giving the best textural properties for H3PO4 activated NCM. Nevertheless, despite the different chemical activating agent used, all the prepared NCMs showed similar oxygen-containing surface functional groups (carboxyl, carboxylate, carbonyl and phenolic groups). The H3PO4 activated NCM showed excellent supercapacitance properties giving a high specific capacitance of ca. 342 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 together with the high cyclic stability sustaining capacitance retention of about 97% after 5000 charging/discharging cycles. Electrochemical supercapacitance properties have demonstrated that the ACN derived novel nanoporous carbon material would be a potential material in energy storage application.


Areca Catechu Nut Nanoarchitectonics Nanoporous carbon materials Chemical activation Electrochemical supercapacitance 



This work is partly supported by the World Premier International Research Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP 16H06518 (Coordination Asymmetry). SJ gratefully acknowledge the Institute of engineering, Department of Science and Humanities, Tribhuvan University for the study leave.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lok Kumar Shrestha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rekha Goswami Shrestha
    • 1
  • Sahira Joshi
    • 2
  • Rinita Rajbhandari
    • 2
  • Nishanta Shrestha
    • 3
  • Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari
    • 3
  • Raja Ram Pradhananga
    • 3
  • Katsuhiko Ariga
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA)National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)TsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of EngineeringTribhuvan UniversityKathmanduNepal
  3. 3.Central Department of ChemistryTribhuvan UniversityKathmanduNepal

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