Response Surface Optimisation of an Oxalate–Phosphate–Amine Metal–Organic Framework (OPA-MOF) of Iron and Urea

  • Manuela Anstoetz
  • Malcolm W. Clark
  • Lachlan H. Yee
Article
  • 152 Downloads

Abstract

Metal–organic framework (MOF) materials are well known for various application fields, such as engineering, and medical sciences. Here, the synthesis, and synthesis-optimisation of a novel oxalate-phosphate-amine MOF (OPA-MOF) for innovative agricultural applications is described, with urea as a structure-directing agent in a hydrothermal synthesis. Product properties conducive to proposed applications included yield, purity, elemental content (N, P, C), and oxalate-solubility, as important driving forces for functionality, which is based on the biomineralisation processes for the material’s decomposition in soil. A four-factors/two levels plus one (42+1) factorial design included replicated zero-point and factors of time, temperature, urea input rate and dilution factor. 19 experimental runs results provided data for a Response Surface Method optimisation to determine factors resulting in a desired product at highest efficiency. The saddle-ridge shaped response surface highlighted system robustness for two factors (time/urea-input), and sensitivity for temperature and dilution factor. Optimal factor combinations initially appeared counterintuitive compared to expected results from factorial design outcomes, however confirmatory experiments validate model predictions. Consequently, the optimisation process was strongly justified for accurate determination of the optimal OPA-MOF synthesis conditions.

Keywords

Hydrothermal synthesis Optimisation Fertilizer, factorial design analysis Surface response modelling Organic metal frameworks Oxalates 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to that the staff and students at Southern Cross University for the support and assistance in data and reference material accession, and in assistance with software use. Much of this study was funded by the Australian Grains Research Development Council (GRDC) Grant - Project No 51426, and partially supported through the Australian Synchrotron AS 2012/1 Application P4430. Southern Cross University provided Manuela Anstoetz an APA (Australian Postgraduate Award) to fund her PhD. We thank Professor Per Zetterlund and Dr Eh Hau Pan of the Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, University of New South Wales, for discussions and instrument access relating to FTIR results.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2626 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment, Science and EngineeringSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  2. 2.Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and EngineeringSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia

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