Titanate Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Doeff, M.M., Cabana, J. & Shirpour, M. J Inorg Organomet Polym (2014) 24: 5. doi:10.1007/s10904-013-9977-8
For reasons of cost and supply security issues, there is growing interest in the development of rechargeable sodium ion batteries, particularly for large-scale grid storage applications. Like the much better known and technologically important lithium ion analogs, the devices operate by shuttling alkali metal cations between two host materials, which undergo insertion processes at different electrochemical potentials. A particular challenge for the sodium systems is identification of a suitable anode material due to the fact that sodium does not intercalate into graphite. Although several alternatives, including disordered carbons and alloys are being investigated, the most promising options at present lie with titanates, not in the least because of attractive characteristics such as low toxicity, ease of synthesis, wide availability, and low cost. A large variety of sodium titanate compounds can be prepared, many of which have tunnel or layered structures that can readily undergo reversible reductive intercalation reactions. A brief overview of the physical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of several of the most promising materials for sodium-ion battery applications is given in this paper, and a comparison is made between the sodium and the lithium insertion behaviors. For some of these compounds, insertion of sodium occurs at unusually low potentials, a feature that has important implications for the design of high-energy sodium-ion systems.