Smoking Prevalence Inequalities Among Roma and Non-Roma Population in Spain Between 2006 and 2014
- 19 Downloads
Tobacco consumption is unequally distributed in society. The objective was to identify trends in tobacco use among the General and Spanish Roma populations in 2006 and 2014, years characterized by strengthening of anti-smoking policy in Spain. We calculated prevalences and logistical regression models based on the Spanish National Health Survey (2006/2012) and the National Health Survey of the Roma population (2006/2014). Smoking decreased only in men in the General population (OR 0.885). In the Roma population, there were no significant changes observed for the 2 years studied (OR: men 1.095, and women 1.147). In fact, Roma men smoke 4.2 cigarettes more, and they have a younger age of initial tobacco use. Smoking behavior of the Roma population has not changed, and there has been no reduction in inequalities in tobacco use among the two populations, despite public policies designed to reduce tobacco use in Spain.
KeywordsSmoking General population Roma population Health survey Public health programs
We wish to thank the interviewers and associations of the Roma community in Spain for participating in this study.
Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain, FEDER Funds (“National Health Survey to Roma Population 2013–2014”, Project Ref. PI12/00842), and Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality of Spain, Carlos III Health Institute. Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain, Spanish State Research Agency (AEI), and European Fund for Economic and Regional Development (FEDER): “Comparative impact evaluation: Roma National Integration Strategies”, Project Ref. CSO2017-83787-P. University Research Institute for Gender Studies—IUIEG-, for activities leading to doctoral theses that include a gender perspective. 2017.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Alicante (Spain) that carried out the study.
Those interviewed were informed in writing and verbally of the objective of the survey, the voluntary nature of participation, the protection of anonymity and confidentiality, and of the institution and team responsible for conducting the survey. No incentive for participation was offered to respondents.
- 1.World Health Organization. Media Cent. 2017. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
- 2.Law 42/2010, of December 30, which modifies Law 28/2005, of December 26, on sanitary measures against smoking and regulating the sale, supply, consumption and advertising of the products of the tobacco. BOE no 318, December 31, 2010 (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- 3.Spanish Society of Epidemiology. Evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain (Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010) Review of the evidence. 2017; 2017 (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- 4.Bobakova D, Dankulincova Veselska Z, Babinska I, Klein D, Madarasova Geckova A, Cislakova L. Differences between Roma and non-Roma in how social support from family and friends helps to overcome health care accessibility problems. Int J Equity Health. 2015;14:37. http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/14/1/37. Accessed 12 July 2018.
- 5.European Union. Roma Health Report. Health status of the Roma population. Data collection in the Member States of the European Union. 2014. https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/social_determinants/docs/2014_roma_health_report_en.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
- 7.La Parra-Casado D. Towards equity in health. Reduce inequalities in one generation in the Roma community. IUDESP, Univ. Alicant. 2009. (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- 8.Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. 2011. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0173:FIN:EN:PDF. Accessed 18 Sept 2018.
- 9.Fundación Secretariado Gitano. Annual report discrimination and the Roma community for a comprehensive equal treatment. 2017.Google Scholar
- 11.Ministry of Health. Government of Spain. Second National Survey of Health to the Roma Population 2014. 2016. (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- 13.Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Tobacco questions for surveys: a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2nd ed. 2011. pp. 1–50. http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/en_tfi_tqs.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 July 2018.
- 14.World Health Organisation. Framework convention tobacco control. Indicator compendium. 1st ed. 2013.Google Scholar
- 15.Whitehead M, Dahlgren G. Concepts and principles for tackling social inequities in health: levelling up Part 1. World Health Organization. 2007. pp. 2–5. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/74737/E89383.pdf. Accessed 3 Mar 2018
- 17.Ministry of Health. Government of Spain. Report to the Cortes Generales on the evaluation of the impact on public health of Law 42/2010. 2010. http://www.msssi.gob.es/ciudadanos/proteccionSalud/tabaco/docs/Informe_Impacto_Salud_Ley_Tabaco.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
- 22.Arza J. Campaign to prevent tobacco use. Pamplona. 2008. (in spanish).Google Scholar
- 24.World Health Organisation. WHO framework convention on tobacco control, vol. 1. Geneva: WHO Press. 2005;270–1.Google Scholar
- 26.World Health Organization. Ottawa charter for health promotion. Ottawa: World Health Organization. 1986.Google Scholar