Acculturation and Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant Women of Arabic Descent
- 260 Downloads
Acculturation has been related to risk of postpartum depression (PPD) among immigrant women globally. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation and PPD symptoms among U.S. immigrant women of Arabic descent. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 115 postpartum immigrant women of Arabic descent. Women completed questionnaires including measures of acculturation [attraction to Arabic culture (AArC), attraction to American culture (AAmC), marginalization] and PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale—EPDS) between 1 and 12 months postpartum. Twenty-five percent of women (n = 29) had EPDS scores ≥ 10 that represent PPD symptoms. Women with higher marginalization reported more PPD symptoms (r = .25, p = .008). None of the acculturation factors correlated with PPD symptoms after adjustment for maternal sociodemographic and health characteristics. Higher education (p = .001), lower gestational age at birth (p < .05), and antenatal anxiety (p < .05) were correlated with PPD symptoms in multivariate analyses. Health care providers should identify and assess immigrant women of Arabic descent for antenatal anxiety as this may identify women at risk for development of PPD symptoms. Future studies need to examine acculturation in relation to mental health among immigrant women of Arabic descent.
KeywordsPostpartum depressive symptoms Acculturation Immigrant women Arabic descent
I would like to express my deep appreciation for Alesia Grinstead, WIC manager in ACCESS, and Dr. Jouhaina Maleh, MD for providing the space and the setting to make this study possible.
This work was supported by Wayne State University Graduate School; Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation (BCBSM) [Grant Number 2375.SAP]; and Sigma Theta Tau Foundation- Lambda Chapter.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 15.Hamdan A, Tamim H. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for postpartum depression in the United Arab Emirates. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2011;14(2):125–33.Google Scholar
- 16.Saleh elS, El-Bahei W, Del El-Hadidy MA, Zayed A. Predictors of postpartum depression in a sample of Egyptian women. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:15–24.Google Scholar
- 18.Alami KM, Kadri N, Berrada S. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth in a Moroccan sample. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2006;9(6):343–6.Google Scholar
- 20.Chaaya M, Campbell OM, El Kak F, Shaar D, Harb H, Kaddour A. Postpartum depression: prevalence and determinants in Lebanon. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2002;5(2):65–72.Google Scholar
- 21.Alhasanat D, Fry-McComish J, Yarandi HN. Risk for postpartum depression among immigrant Arabic women in the United States: a feasibility study. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2017;62:470–476Google Scholar
- 23.Stewart DE, Gagnon AJ, Merry LA, Dennis CL. Risk factors and health profiles of recent migrant women who experienced violence associated with pregnancy. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012;21(10):1100–6.Google Scholar
- 24.Zelkowitz P, Saucier JF, Wang T, Katofsky L, Valenzuela M, Westreich R. Stability and change in depressive symptoms from pregnancy to two months postpartum in childbearing immigrant women. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2008;11(1):1–11.Google Scholar
- 27.Berry JW. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Appl Psychol. 1997;46(1):5–34.Google Scholar
- 32.Sumner LA, Wong L, Schetter CD, Myers HF, Rodriguez M. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income Latinas during pregnancy and postpartum. Psychol Trauma Theory Res Pract Policy. 2012;4(2):196.Google Scholar
- 33.Valentine JM, Rodriguez MA, Lapeyrouse LM, Zhang M. Recent intimate partner violence as a prenatal predictor of maternal depression in the first year postpartum among Latinas. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2011;14(2):135–43.Google Scholar
- 39.Cuellar I, Arnold B, Maldonado R. Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1995;17(3):275–304.Google Scholar
- 40.Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150(6):782–6.Google Scholar
- 42.Ghubash R, Abou-Saleh MT, Daradkeh TK. The validity of the Arabic Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1997;32(8):474–6.Google Scholar
- 46.Delara M. Social determinants of immigrant women’s mental health. Adv Public Health. 2016;2016:9730162.Google Scholar
- 48.Kirmayer LJ, Narasiah L, Munoz M, Rashid M, Ryder AG, Guzder J, et al. Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach in primary care. Can Med Assoc J. 2011;183:E959–967.Google Scholar
- 50.Lara MA, Navarrete L, Nieto L. Prenatal predictors of postpartum depression and postpartum depressive symptoms in Mexican mothers: a longitudinal study. Arch Women’s Ment Health. 2016;19(5):825–34.Google Scholar
- 52.Mukherjee S, Coxe S, Fennie K, Madhivanan P, Trepka MJ. Antenatal stressful life events and postpartum depressive symptoms in the United States: the role of women’s socioeconomic status indices at the state level. J Women’s Health 2016;26:276–285.Google Scholar
- 54.Beck CT. Predictors of postpartum depression: an update. Nurs Res. 2001;50(5):275–85.Google Scholar
- 55.O’hara MW, Swain AM. Rates and risk of postpartum depression—a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1996;8(1):37–54.Google Scholar
- 58.Arab American Institute Foundation. State profile: Michigan. 2011. http://www.aaiusa.org. Accessed 30 Sep 2017.