Dietary Patterns in Chinese Americans are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA)
Little is known about the dietary patterns of Chinese Americans. Understanding their dietary patterns can provide insights for addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Chinese American immigrants. The objective of this study was to identify dietary patterns among Chinese American immigrants living in New York City (NYC) and to describe associations with demographic and CVD risk factors. A validated Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed usual dietary intake in Chinese American immigrants living in NYC as part of the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) in 2010–2011 (n = 1973, age range 21–89 years). Principal components analysis with varimax rotation retaining three factors with eigenvalues > 1.5 identified dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models tested associations between CVD risk factors and dietary pattern scores. In multivariable analyses, each unit of increase in the Sweets factor was associated with 0.76 ± 0.33 (mean ± SD) mg/dL higher HDL cholesterol and a 6.2 ± 2.7% increase in HOMA-IR. In contrast, each unit increase in the Fried Noodles factor was associated with a 0.27 ± 0.11 inch greater waist circumference, − 0.89 ± 0.40 mg/dL lower HDL cholesterol, and also a 6.9 ± 2.6% increase in HOMA-IR. Each unit increase in the Vegetables factor was associated with a − 1.40 ± 0.43 mmHg and − 0.95 ± 0.27 mm Hg decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Dietary patterns are significantly associated with CVD risk factors among Chinese American immigrants in NYC. Future work will inform how dietary patterns relate to level of acculturation in order to guide the development of dietary interventions to reduce CVD risk.
KeywordsDietary patterns Cardiovascular disease risk Chinese Americans Urban health Immigrant populations
This research was supported in part by NIH Grants R01HL077809 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, P30DK11102 from the National Institute of Diabetes Digestive and Kidney Diseases, P60MD000538 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities U48DP005008 and U58DP005621 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UL1TR001445 from NCATS/NIH. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH and CDC. Funding was provided by National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (Grant No. U54MD000538). The authors appreciate Dr. Shankar Viswanathan’s advice on the analytic approach.
J.W.R, S.S.Y, and J.M.B. designed the research; J.W.R. conducted the research; J.M.B. analyzed the data; and J.M.B., S.S.Y, J.A, S.C.K, and J.W.R. wrote the paper. J.M.B. had primary responsibility for final content.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
JMB, SSY, JA, SCK, JWR have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
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