Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 606–658 | Cite as

Barriers and Facilitators to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Immigrants in the United States

  • Georges AdunlinEmail author
  • John W. Cyrus
  • Matthew Asare
  • Lindsay M. Sabik
Review Paper


To summarize the literature on barriers and facilitators to breast and cervical cancer screening among immigrants to the US. A literature review was conducted for studies on breast and cervical cancer screening among immigrant populations. A thematic analysis of 180 studies identified a variety of barriers and facilitators to screening at the personal and system levels. Personal barriers included lack of knowledge and insurance coverage, high cost of care, and immigration status. System barriers included poor access to services, lack of interpreter services, and insensitivity to patient needs. Facilitators to screening included knowledge of disease, access to information sources, physician recommendation, and social networks. Cultural norms and resource availability at the individual and system levels influence screening among immigrants. Health insurance coverage was found to be an important predictor of preventative screening use. Future research should seek to identify the best way to address this and other barriers to cancer screening among immigrants groups.


Immigrants Cancer Screening Barriers Facilitators Health disparity 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georges Adunlin
    • 1
    Email author
  • John W. Cyrus
    • 2
  • Matthew Asare
    • 3
  • Lindsay M. Sabik
    • 4
  1. 1.McWhorter School of PharmacySamford UniversityHomewoodUSA
  2. 2.Tompkins-McCaw LibraryVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  3. 3.Department of Public HealthBaylor UniversityWacoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Policy and ManagementUniversity of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public HealthPittsburghUSA

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