Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 674–677 | Cite as

Uptake of Gynecological Cancer Screening and Performance of Breast Self-Examination Among 50-Year-Old Migrant and Non-migrant Women in Germany: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study (InEMa)

  • Eva-Maria BerensEmail author
  • Lea-Marie Mohwinkel
  • Sandra van Eckert
  • Maren Reder
  • Petra Kolip
  • Jacob Spallek
Brief Communication


Our aim was to provide data regarding uptake of gynecological early detection measures and performance of breast self-examinations among migrant women in Germany. Cross-sectional self-reported data were collected using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Descriptive analyses, Chi square-tests, and logistic regression were applied. Results were adjusted for educational level. Of 5387 women, 89.9% were autochthonous, 4.1% German resettlers, 2.8% Turkish, 3.1% other migrants. Participation rates regarding cancer screening differed significantly, with the lowest proportion in Turkish migrants (65.0%), resettlers (67.8%), other migrants (68.2%) and autochthonous population (78.2%). No differences in performance of breast self-examinations were detected. When adjusted for education, results indicated only slight changes in the odds to participate in screening irregularly or not at all. Results support existing evidence by showing lower participation rates in cancer screening among migrant women, but there were no differences regarding breast self-examinations. Migrant women form a potential high-risk group for late-stage diagnosis of cervical or breast cancer.


Migrants Non-migrants Cervical and breast cancer Cancer screening Participation Performance Uptake 



This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Health within Research for the National Cancer Plan, Grant Number NKP-332-028. The content of this paper is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funders.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This study was not linked to a mammography screening organization.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Services Research and Nursing Science, Bielefeld School of Public HealthBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and International Public Health, Bielefeld School of Public HealthBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Department of Prevention and Health Promotion, Bielefeld School of Public HealthBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  4. 4.Institute of PsychologyUniversity of HildesheimHildesheimGermany
  5. 5.Department of Public HealthBrandenburg University of TechnologySenftenbergGermany

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