Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Loss Scale with Refugee Women-at-Risk Recently Arrived in Australia
- 103 Downloads
Refugee women-at-risk represent a distinct and vulnerable refugee population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) with 104 women-at-risk, recently-arrived in Australia. Cross-sectional survey included: the MLS (indexing loss events and loss distress); Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (Indexing Trauma Events and Trauma Symptoms), and; Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 (indexing anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms). Exploratory factor analyses of MLS loss distress revealed a six-factor model (loss of symbolic self; loss of home; loss of interdependence; loss of past aspirations; interpersonal loss, and; loss of intrapersonal integrity). Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for loss events (0.83) and distress (0.88). Correlations supported convergent validity of loss distress with trauma symptoms (r = 0.41) and divergent validity with anxiety (r = 0.09), Depression (r = 0.29), and somatic (r = 0.24) symptoms. Findings support MLS use in assessment of loss and associated distress with refugee women-at-risk.
KeywordsLoss Refugees Women-at-risk Psychometric properties Assessment
Funding was provided by Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Grant, ACCESS Community Services, and Australian Catholic University (Grant No. LP140100609).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: UNHCR’s Strategic directions 2017–2021. Geneva: UNHCR; 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/en-au/excom/announce/5894558d4/unhcrs-strategic-directions-2017-2021.html Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
- 3.Oxford University Press: the Oxford English Dictionary online; Oxford University Press; 2017 http://www.oed.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/view/Entry/110192?rskey=s3LT42&result=2#eid Accessed 23 October 2017.
- 4.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Conclusion on Refugee Women. No. 60 (XL). Geneva: UNHCR; 1989. http://www.unhcr.org/protection/resettlement/51de6e929/resettlement-women-risk-risk-reduced-unhcr-usa.html Accessed 19 June 2016.
- 5.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Proposed executive committee conclusion on women at risk: Follow-up paper. Geneva: UNHCR; 2006. http://www.unhcr.org/excom/icm/45082362c/proposed-executive-committee-conclusion-women-risk-follow-up-paper.html Accessed 19 June 2016.
- 6.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: UNHCR Resettlement Handbook. Geneva: UNHCR; 2011. http://www.unhcr.org/protection/resettlement/3d464e842/unhcr-resettlement-handbook-chapter-6-unhcr-resettlement-submission-categories.html Accessed 29 March 2017.
- 10.American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3). Washington: APA; 1987.Google Scholar
- 15.Bartolomei L, Eckert R, Pittaway E. (2014). “What happens there… follows us here”: resettled but still at risk: refugee women and girls in Australia. Refuge 30: 45–56.Google Scholar
- 20.James W. Principles of psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1980.Google Scholar
- 21.Mollica RF, McDonald L, Massagli M, Silove D. Measuring trauma, measuring torture: Instructions and guidance on the utilization of the Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma’s Versions of the Hopkins Symptom checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma questionnaire (HTQ). Cambridge: Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma; 2004.Google Scholar
- 23.Hesbacher PT, Rickels K, Morris RJ, Newman H, Rosenfeld H. Psychiatric Illness in family practice. J Clin Psychiatr. 1980;41:6–10.Google Scholar
- 28.Stevens JP. Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. 2 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1992.Google Scholar
- 29.Fabrigar LR, Wegener D: Exploratory factor analysis. Oxford University Press; 2012 https://qut.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?docid=alma991000894799704001&context=L&vid=61QUT_INST:61QUT&lang=en&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&tab=Everything&query=any,contains,exploratory%20factor%20analysis%20fabrigar%20and%20wegener&sortby=rank&offset=0. Accessed 18 May 2018.
- 34.Bruce EJ, Schultz CL. Nonfinite loss and grief: a psychoeducational approach. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes; 2001.Google Scholar
- 35.Shear KM, Smith-Caroff K. Traumatic loss and the syndrome of complicated grief. PTSD Res Quart. 2002;13(1):1–8.Google Scholar
- 36.Boss P. Ambiguous loss: learning to live with unresolved grief. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1999.Google Scholar
- 37.Doran G, Hansen D. Constructions of Mexican American family grief after the death of a child: an exploratory study. Cult Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2006; 12:199 – 21.Google Scholar
- 39.Rando T. Treatment of complicated mourning. Champaign, IL: Research Press; 1993.Google Scholar
- 41.Doka K. Challenging the paradigm: new understandings of grief. Grief Matters. 2001;4:31–3.Google Scholar
- 42.Worden W. Grief counselling and grief therapy. A handbook for the mental health practitioner. 4. London: Routledge; 2009.Google Scholar
- 43.Rosenblatt P, Jackson D, Walsh P. Grief and mourning in cross-cultural perspective. Med Anthropol. 1978;9:18–9.Google Scholar