Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 98–104 | Cite as

Racial Disparities in Type of Heart Failure and Hospitalization

  • Wei-Chen LeeEmail author
  • Hani Serag
  • Robert L. Ohsfeldt
  • Karl Eschbach
  • Wissam Khalife
  • Mohamed Morsy
  • Kenneth D. Smith
  • Ben G. Raimer
Original Paper


Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and readmissions. Our study aimed to examine racial disparities in heart failure patients including onset, mortality, length of stay (LOS), direct costs, and readmission rates. This is a secondary data analysis. We analyzed the risk-adjusted inpatient data of all patients admitted with HF to one health academic center. We compared five health outcomes among three racial groups (white, black, and Hispanic). There were 1006 adult patients making 1605 visits from 10/01/2011 to 09/30/2015. Most black patients were admitted in younger age than other racial groups which indicates the needs for more public health preventions. With risk adjustments, the racial differences in LOS and readmission rates remain. We stratified health outcomes by race/ethnic and type of HF. The findings suggest that further studies to uncover underlying causes of these disparities are necessary. Using risk-adjusted hospitalization data allows for comparisons of quality of care across three racial groups. The study suggests that more prevention and protection services are needed for African American patients with heart failure.


Heart failure Health disparities Length of stay Readmission 



The researchers would like to express the deepest gratitude to the following departments that without their help, this project would not be possible: (1) University of Texas Medical Brach Office of the President-Waiver Operations, (2) Clinical Data Management, and (3) Office of Health Policy and Legislative Affairs.


The study received financial funding from Texas Medicaid 1115 Waiver (#094092602.1.9).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest or others exists.

Ethical Approval

The study has acquired the approval of Institutional Review Board (#16-0128) at University of Texas Medical Branch and has complied with all requirements for a secondary data analysis to protect privacy of health information.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Office of Health Policy and Legislative AffairsUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Policy and ManagementTexas A&M Health Science CenterCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Department of Preventive Medicine and Community HealthUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal Medicine-CardiologyUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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