This study examined associations of immigrant generation, acculturation, and sources of stress and resilience with four outcomes—depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, alcohol susceptibility, and smoking susceptibility. We used data from 1466 youth (ages 8–16) enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth), a probability sample of Hispanic/Latino youth living in Chicago (IL), Miami (FL), Bronx (NY), and San Diego (CA). We found no evidence of an immigrant paradox. Greater children’s acculturative stress was associated with depression/anxiety symptoms; greater parent’s acculturative stress was associated with smoking susceptibility. Family functioning and children’s ethnic identity were associated with fewer depression/anxiety symptoms and lower alcohol/smoking susceptibility. Although acculturation-related stressors increase youths’ risks for poor mental health and substance use, the development of positive ethnic identities and close, well-functioning family support systems can help protect Latino/Hispanic children from the negative behavioral and health-related consequences of stress.
Latino/Hispanic adolescent immigrant acculturation Mental health and substance use Depression/anxiety and smoking/alcohol Immigrant paradox
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Funding was provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Grant Nos. R01HL102130, N01-HC65233, N01-HC65234, N01-HC65237, N01-HC65235 and N01-HC65236) and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Grant No. P2C HD50924).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.
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