Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children
- 272 Downloads
Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00–1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11–0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4–6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.
KeywordsChildhood obesity Latinos Perinatal infant risk factors Perinatal maternal risk factors
Body mass index
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco General Hospital
World Health Organization
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Institute of Medicine
Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview
This work was supported by a Grant from the Lundbeck Foundation to the Innovation Centre, Denmark and University of California, San Francisco to fund the Lundbeck Foundation Clinical Research Fellowship for Thora Wesenberg Kjaer. This study was funded by NIH NIDDK 080825, Marc and Lynne Benioff, the NASPGHAN Foundation, the Hellman Family Foundation and UCSF CTSI-SOS. This research was also supported by NIH/NCRR UCSF-CTSI Grant No. UL1 RR024131.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
No competing financial interests exist.
- 1.Ogden CL, et al. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2015(219):1–8.Google Scholar
- 5.Jimenez-Cruz A, et al. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico. Nutr Hosp. 2011;26(1):187–93.Google Scholar
- 6.Shi Y, De Groh M, Morrison H. Perinatal and early childhood factors for overweight and obesity in young Canadian children. Can J Public Health. 2013;104(1):e69-74.Google Scholar
- 14.WHO. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices (part 1: definitions). 2008. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43895/1/9789241596664_eng.pdf. Accessed 27 Dec 2016.
- 15.NHLBI. Assessing your weight and health risk. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/risk.htm. Accessed 6 Jan 2018.
- 16.ACOG. Weight gain during pregnancy. http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy. Accessed 2 Feb 2017.
- 19.Sheehan DV, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 20):22–33 (quiz 34–57).Google Scholar
- 20.Kuczmarski RJ, et al. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data 2000(314):1–27.Google Scholar