Latinas’ Colorectal Cancer Screening Knowledge, Barriers to Receipt, and Feasibility of Home-Based Fecal Immunochemical Testing
- 147 Downloads
Latinas’ high colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality makes them a priority population for CRC screening. CRC screening knowledge, perceived barriers, and feasibility of using the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) was assessed among Latinas in Utah. Participants aged ≥50 (n = 95) were surveyed about knowledge and barriers to CRC screening. 27 participants completed a FIT and evaluation survey. Fisher’s exact tests assessed sociodemographic correlates of CRC screening outcomes. Most participants were overdue for CRC screening (n = 81, 85%). Age, acculturation, education, and employment were significantly associated with CRC screening status and/or reasons for being overdue (e.g., not knowing about the test, cost). All participants who received a FIT completed it, felt it was easy to use, and reported they would use it again. Latinas had limited awareness of CRC, CRC screenings, and experienced barriers to CRC screening (e.g., limited access, cost), but were willing to utilize a low-cost home-based FIT.
KeywordsLatina(o) Colon cancer Colorectal cancer Fecal immunochemical test FOBT Healthcare utilization
We would like to acknowledge and thank the participants for their time and important contributions to this study. We would also like to thank the community organizations, Alliance Community Services and Comunidades Unidas, for their assistance with recruiting participants. Ms. Warner is thankful to be supported by the Jonas Center for Nursing and Veterans Healthcare.
This study was funded by the Utah Department of Health, the Beaumont Foundation, the University of Utah College of Nursing Research Committee, and the Huntsman Cancer Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Escarce J, Morales L, Rumbaut R. The health status and health behaviors of hispanics. In: Tienda M, Mitchell F, editors. National Research Council (US) Panel on Hispanics in the United States. Washington (DC): National Academies of Press; 2006.Google Scholar
- 2.Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2012–2014. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2012.Google Scholar
- 3.Healthy People 2020 Topics & Objectives: Cancer. 2012; https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/cancer/objectives. Accessed 04/05/2017.
- 4.Colby S, Ortman J. Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014–2060. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2014.Google Scholar
- 5.QuickFacts United States 2015; https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045216/00. Accessed 04 Jun 2017.
- 6.Salt Lake City, Utah QuickFacts 2010. Available from: http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/4967000.
- 7.Hispanic Demographics: Utah Hispanice Chamber of COmmerce; 2016. Available from: http://www.utahhcc.com/hispanic-res/demographics.
- 8.Brown A. U.S. Hispanic and Asian populations growing, but for different reasons. PewResearchCenter; 2014. Available from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/26/u-s-hispanic-and-asian-populations-growing-but-for-different-reasons/.
- 9.L D. Census: Utah’s Latino population grows to more than 400,000. 2016; http://archive.sltrib.com/story.php?ref=/home/4035282-155. Accessed 04 May 2017.
- 10.Public Health Indicator Based Information System (IBIS): Complete Health Indicator Report of Birth Rates. 2017; https://ibis.health.utah.gov/indicator/complete_profile/BrthRat.html. Accessed 05 Oct 2017.
- 11.Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Osterman MJK, Curtin SC, Mathews TJ. Births: final Data for 2014. Nat Vital Stat Rep. 2015;64(12):1–72.Google Scholar
- 12.Stepler R, Brown A. Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States: Pew Research Center Hispanic Trends; 2016. Available from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2016/04/19/statistical-portrait-of-hispanics-in-the-united-states-key-charts/#hispanic-pop.
- 13.Office of Health Disparities: Hispanic & Latino Health: Utah: Department of Health; 2016. Available from: http://www.health.utah.gov/disparities/utah-minority-communities/hispanic-latino.html.
- 15.Health Indicator Report of Colorectal Cancer Deaths 2015. Available from: http://ibis.health.utah.gov/indicator/view/ColCADth.Eth.html.
- 16.Health Indicator Report of Colorectal Cancer Screening 2015. Available from: http://ibis.health.utah.gov/indicator/view/ColCAScr.UT_US.html.
- 18.van Ballegooijen M, Habbema JDF, Boer R, Zauber AG, Brown ML. AHRQ technology assessments. A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of fecal occult blood tests with different test characteristics in the context of annual screening in the medicare population. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003.Google Scholar
- 24.Fowler B, Bodson J, Warner EL, Dyer J, Kepka D. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah Latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings. J Community Health. 2016.Google Scholar
- 25.Prevention Care Management: National Cancer Institute; 2010. Available from: http://rtips.cancer.gov/rtips/programDetails.do?programId=295722.
- 27.Rapid response TM fecal immunochemical test (FIT) Cassette. 2014; http://www.btnx.com/Product.aspx?id=1735. Accessed 04 May 2017.
- 28.American Cancer Society recommendations for colorectal cancer early detection 2016. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-acs-recommendations.
- 29.Colorectal cancer: screening 2008. Available from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/colorectal-cancer-screening.
- 34.Flowers L, Noel-Miller C, Okrent D. Colonoscopy Screening after the Affordable Care Act: Cost Barriers Persist for Medicare Beneficiaries. 2013.Google Scholar
- 35.Mach AL. Individual Mandate Under the ACA. Congressional Research Service, 2015.Google Scholar
- 36.Colorectal cancer screening: Insurance coverage: American Cancer Society, 2016. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-screening-coverage-laws.