Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1148–1155 | Cite as

Second and Thirdhand Smoke Exposure, Attitudes and Protective Practices: Results from a Survey of Hispanic Residents in Multi-unit Housing

  • Angelica Delgado-RendonEmail author
  • Tess Boley Cruz
  • Daniel Soto
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
  • Jennifer B. Unger
Original Paper


Secondhand and third hand smoke (SHS, THS) exposure is prevalent in multi-unit housing (MUH). Minorities and low-income MUH residents are disproportionally exposed to SHS and THS compared to other populations. This study describes the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related to SHS, THS and marijuana smoke exposure (MSHS) of a sample of Hispanic tenants in randomly selected MUH units in eastern metro Los Angeles (n = 402). Although most participants (97%) banned smoking inside their homes, 80% reported infiltration of SHS inside their apartments within the last year. Most (85%) favored a complete ban on smoking in apartment buildings. Twenty-eight percent did not know that marijuana (MSHS) smoke exposure is also harmful to their health. Knowledge scores were higher among Spanish-speakers (p < 0.05). Given the interpersonal barriers to advocating for change, widespread policy and communication interventions are also necessary to protect Hispanic MUH residents’ rights to clean air in their living space.


Secondhand smoke Thirdhand smoke Hispanics Multi-unit housing Marihuana secondhand smoke 



This study was funded by the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program (Grant: 21RT-0119) and the TRDRP Cornelius Hopper Diversity Award.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest. Authors Jennifer B. Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Daniel Soto, and Angelica Delgado Rendon have received research grants from the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program for this and other research studies. Other than this the authors declare that they do not have any other conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, Institute for Prevention ResearchUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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