Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 1434–1441 | Cite as

Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey

  • Perihan Elif EkmekciEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees’ access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey’s United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey’s refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey’s remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee’s flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

Keywords

Migration Public health Refugee health Health legislation Turkish refugee policy Turkish migration legislation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Beverly Gilligan and Dennis Kinney for their contributions.

References

  1. 1.
    United Nations Refugee Agency Convention and protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees UNHCR Communication and Public Information Service Geneva; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Nations Refugee Agency UNHCR viewpoint: ‘Refugee’ or ‘Migrant’-Which is right. 2015. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/55df0e556.html.
  3. 3.
    Kirişçi K. Post second World War immigration from Balkan countries to Turkey. New Perspect Turk. 1995;12:65–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tarımcı A. The role of geographical limitation with respect to asylum and refugee policies within the context of Turkey’s EU harmonization process. A thesisi submitted to Middle east Tecnical University. 2005. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. https://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/3/12606825/index.pdf.
  5. 5.
    Karaca S, Doğan U. Suriyeli göçmenlerin çalıştayı raporu [Report on problems of Syrian refugees workshop.] 2014; 13–44.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    United Nations Refugee Agency. Total number of Syrian refugees exceeds four million for first time. 2015. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://www.unhcr.org.tr/?lang=en&content=648.
  7. 7.
    Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency management Presidency: Syrian refugees in Turkey, Field Survey Results. Ankara: Ankara Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    The European Commission: Enlargement Turkey progress Report. Brussels; 2014 Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2014/20141008-turkey-progress-report_en.pdf.
  9. 9.
    Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. EU-Turkey Joint Action Plan-Third implementation report. 2014 Cited on 11 March 2016. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/proposal-implementation-package/docs/implementation_report_20160304_eu-turkey_joint_action_plan_en.pdf.
  10. 10.
    Migrants brave deadly dinghies, Turkish coastguard for new life. 2015. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-turkey-coastguard-idUSKCN0RK08R20150920.
  11. 11.
    The refugee crisis: 9 questions you were too embarrased to ask. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http:www.vox.com/2015/9/9/9290985/refugee-crisis-europe-syrian.
  12. 12.
    Latif D. Refugee policy of the Turkish Republic. Turk Yearb Int Relat. 2002;33:2–29.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanderson M. The Syrian crisis and the principle of non-refoulement. Int Law Stud. 2013;89:776–801.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    İçduygu A, Erder S, Gençkaya ÖF. Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Göç Politikaları, 1923–2023. (Turkey’s International igration Policies, 1923–2013) Koç University Migration Research Center Istanbul Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration. Counc Eur. 2014;34–39,42–48.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Treaty on the functioning of the European Union. Cited on 19 Feb 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A12012E%2FTXT.
  17. 17.
    Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000/c 364/01). Cited on 19 Feb 2016. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf.
  18. 18.
    Directive 2008/115/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of December 2008 on common standards and procedures in member states for returning illegally staying third-country nationals. Cited on 19 Feb 2016. http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0098:0107:EN:PDF.
  19. 19.
    Official Journal of the European Union: Council Decision on the principles, priorities, intermediate objectives and conditions contained in the Accession Partnership with Turkey. 2003. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://avrupa.info.tr/fileadmin/Content/Downloads/PDF/l_14520030612en00400056.pdf.
  20. 20.
    Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Turkey on the readmission on persons residing without authorisation. Official journal of the European Union. 2014. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A22014A0507(01).
  21. 21.
    The United nations Refugee Agency. Workshop on development of protection strategies for persons in need of international protection in the urban context. 2016.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies. Effects of the Syrian refugees on Turkey. Ankara: Ankara Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    OECD Health at a glance 2015: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. 2015. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/social-issues-migration-health/health-at-a-glance-2015_health_glance-2015-en.
  24. 24.
    Burnett A, Peel M. Health needs of asylum seekeres and refugees. BMJ. 2001;3(322):544–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Public Health Institute of Turkish Ministry of Health: Health Services for People Under Temporary Protection. Cited on 17 Feb 2016. http://www.saglikyonetimi2015.org/sunumlar/KANUNI-KEKLIK.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History of Medicine and EthicsTOBB University Medical FacultyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations