Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 108–119 | Cite as

Subjective Social Status and Self-Reported Health Among US-born and Immigrant Latinos

  • Jeremiah R. Garza
  • Beth A. Glenn
  • Rashmita S. Mistry
  • Ninez A. Ponce
  • Frederick J. Zimmerman
Original Paper

Abstract

Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one’s perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.

Keywords

USA Latino Subjective social status Self-rated health Socioeconomic status 

References

  1. 1.
    Adler NE, Rehkopf DH. U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29(1):235–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banks J, Marmot M, Oldfield Z, Smith JP. Disease and disadvantage in the United States and in England. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;295(17):2037–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marmot M, Wilkinson RG, editors. Social determinants of health. 2nd ed. USA: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adler NE, Epel ES, Castellazzo G, Ickovics JR. Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychol. 2000;19(6):586–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh-Manoux A, Adler NE, Marmot MG. Subjective social status: its determinants and its association with measures of ill-health in the Whitehall II study. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56(6):1321–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matthews KA, Gallo LC, Taylor SE. Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? A progress report and blueprint for the future. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2010;1186:146–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adler NE, Snibbe AC. The role of psychosocial processes in explaining the gradient between socioeconomic status and health. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2003;12(4):119–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baum A, Garofalo JP, Yali AM. Socioeconomic status and chronic stress. Does stress account for SES effects on health? Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;896:131–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilkinson RG. Socioeconomic determinants of health. Health inequalities: relative or absolute material standards? Br Med J. 1997;314(7080):591–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pickett K, Wilkinson R. The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. Reprint. Bloomsbury Press; 2011 400 p. ISBN-10: 1608193411, ISBN-13: 978-1608193417.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ostrove JM, Adler NE, Kuppermann M, Washington AE. Objective and subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and their relationship to self-rated health in an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women. Health Psychol. 2000;19(6):613–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Castro AB, Gee GC, Takeuchi DT. Examining alternative measures of social disadvantage among Asian Americans: the relevance of economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain for health. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(5):659–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gong F, Xu J, Takeuchi DT. Beyond conventional socioeconomic status: examining subjective and objective social status with self-reported health among Asian immigrants. J Behav Med. 2012;35(4):407–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolff LS, Acevedo-Garcia D, Subramanian SV, Weber D, Kawachi I. Subjective social status, a new measure in health disparities research: do race/ethnicity and choice of referent group matter? J Health Psychol. 2010;15(4):560–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Euteneuer F. Subjective social status and health. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2014;27(5):337–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cené CW, Halladay JR, Gizlice Z, Roedersheimer K, Hinderliter A, Cummings DM, et al. Associations between subjective social status and physical and mental health functioning among patients with hypertension. J Health Psychol. 2015;5:1359105315581514.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Franzini L, Fernandez-Esquer ME. The association of subjective social status and health in low-income Mexican-origin individuals in Texas. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(3):788–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sanchón-Macias MV, Prieto-Salceda D, Bover-Bover A, Gastaldo D, Sanchón-Macias MV, Prieto-Salceda D, et al. Relationship between subjective social status and perceived health among Latin American immigrant women. Rev Lat Am Enferm. 2013;21(6):1353–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    do V Camelo L, Giatti L, Barreto SM. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil). J Health Psychol. 2014;19(11):1388–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Macinko J, Mullachery P, Proietti FA, Lima-Costa MF. Who experiences discrimination in Brazil? Evidence from a large metropolitan region. Int J Equity Health. 2012;11:80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giatti L, do V Camelo L, de C Rodrigues JF, Barreto SM. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status—Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1096.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolff LS, Subramanian SV, Acevedo-Garcia D, Weber D, Kawachi I. Compared to whom? Subjective social status, self-rated health, and referent group sensitivity in a diverse US sample. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(12):2019–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tropp LR, Wright SC. Ingroup identification and relative deprivation: an examination across multiple social comparisons. Eur J Soc Psychol. 1999;29(5–6):707–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adler NE, Stewart J. The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status [Internet]. 2007. http://www.macses.ucsf.edu/research/psychological/subjective.php.
  25. 25.
    Logan JR, Zhang W, Alba RD. Immigrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. Am Sociol Rev. 2002;67(2):299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ritterman ML, Fernald LC, Ozer EJ, Adler NE, Gutierrez JP, Syme SL. Objective and subjective social class gradients for substance use among Mexican adolescents. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(10):1843–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ayón C, Becerra D. Mexican immigrant families under siege: the impact of anti-immigrant policies, discrimination, and the economic crisis. Adv Soc Work. 2013;14(1):206–28.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zuniga ME. Latino immigrants. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. 2002;5(3–4):137–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ayon C, Marsiglia FF, Bermudez-Parsai M. Latino family mental health: exploring the role of discrimination and familismo. J Community Psychol. 2010;38(6):742–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ding H, Hargraves L. Stress-associated poor health among adult immigrants with a language barrier in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009;11(6):446–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(2):200–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor P. The American Experience [Internet]. Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project. 2012 [cited 2014 Sep 3]. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/04/iii-the-american-experience/.
  33. 33.
    Reitzel LR, Mazas CA, Cofta-Woerpel L, Vidrine JI, Businelle MS, Kendzor DE, et al. Acculturative and neighborhood influences on subjective social status among Spanish-speaking Latino immigrant smokers. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(5):677–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nicklett EJ, Burgard SA. Downward social mobility and major depressive episodes among Latino and Asian-American immigrants to the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(6):793–801.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alcántara C, Chen C-N, Alegría M. Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health? Soc Sci Med. 2014;1982(101):94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Adler NE. Does subjective social status predict health and change in health status better than objective status? Psychosom Med. 2005;67(6):855–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berkman LF, Kawachi I, editors. Social Epidemiology. 1st ed. USA: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kawachi I, Kennedy BP. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms. Health Serv Res. 1999;34(1 Pt 2):215–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME. Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychol Bull. 2004;130(3):355–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Heeringa SG, Wagner J, Torres M, Duan N, Adams T, Berglund P. Sample designs and sampling methods for the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(4):221–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alegria M, Vila D, Woo M, Canino G, Takeuchi D, Vera M. Cultural relevance and equivalence in the NLAAS instrument: Integrating etic and emic in the development of cross-cultural measures for a psychiatric epidemiology and services study of Latinos. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13:270–88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alegria M, Takeuchi D, Canino G, Duan N, Shrout P, Meng X-L, et al. Considering context, place and culture: the National Latino and Asian American Study. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(4):208–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Manor O, Matthews S, Power C. Dichotomous or categorical response? Analysing self-rated health and lifetime social class. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29(1):149–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ponce NA, Hays RD, Cunningham WE. Linguistic disparities in health care access and health status among older adults. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(7):786–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Siahpush M, Singh GK. A multivariate analysis of the association between social class of origin and current social class with self-rated general health and psychological health among 16-year-old Australians. Aust NZ J Med. 2000;30(6):653–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kennedy P. A guide to econometrics. 6th ed. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Operario D, Adler NE, Williams DR. Subjective social status: reliability and predictive utility for global health. Psychol Health. 2004;19(2):237–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ghaed SG, Gallo LC. Subjective social status, objective socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk in women. Health Psychol. 2007;26(6):668–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Subramanyam M, Kawachi I, Berkman L, Subramanian SV. Relative deprivation in income and self-rated health in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(3):327–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S, Williams DR, Pamuk E. Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us. Am J Public Health. 2010;1(100 Suppl 1):S186–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hayward MD, Miles TP, Crimmins EM, Yang Y. The significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the racial gap in chronic health conditions. Am Sociol Rev. 2000;65(6):910–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Triandis HC. Individualism & collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rinderle S, Montoya D. Hispanic/Latino identity labels: an examination of cultural values and personal experiences. Howard J Commun. 2008;19(2):144–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guarnaccia PJ, Pincay IM, Alegria M, Shrout P, Lewis-Fernandez R, Canino G. Assessing diversity among Latinos: results from the NLAAS. Hisp J Behav Sci. 2007;29(4):510–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A Guide to Statistics on Historical Trends in Income Inequality | Center on Budget and Policy Priorities [Internet]. [cited 2015 Nov 3]. http://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/a-guide-to-statistics-on-historical-trends-in-income-inequality.
  56. 56.
    FRB: FEDS Notes: The Increase in Wealth Concentration, 1989-2013 [Internet]. [cited 2015 Nov 3]. http://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/notes/feds-notes/2015/increase-in-wealth-concentration-1989-2013-20150605.html.
  57. 57.
    Santa Ana O. Like an animal I was treated’: Anti-immigrant metaphor in US public discourse. Discourse Soc. 1999;10(2):191–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Massey DS, Pren KA. Origins of the New Latino Underclass. Race Soc Probl. 2012;4(1):5–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Taylor P, Lopez MH, Velasco G, Motel S. Hispanics Say They Have the Worst of a Bad Economy [Internet]. Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project. [cited 2015 Nov 3]. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/01/26/hispanics-say-they-have-the-worst-of-a-bad-economy/.
  60. 60.
    Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D. Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(9):1491–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations